Chapter 20 - Chapter 20 1) Identify the general functions...

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Chapter 20 1) Identify the general functions of the urinary system. 1. removes metabolic wastes and chemicals in excess 2. excretes foreign substances 2) List the organs of the urinary system and state the function(s) of each organ. A. Kidneys – a pair of bean shaped organs located on either side of the vertebral column, on the posterior superior wall of the abdominal cavity 1. Function – a. remove substances from the blood, form urine, & help regulate certain metabolic processes b. regulate the volume, composition, & pH of body fluids and remove metabolic wastes from the blood and excrete them B. Ureters – a pair of tubes that extend from each of the paired kidneys 1. Function - transport urine from the kidneys C. Urinary bladder – collects urine from the ureters & serves as a urine reservoir D. Urethra – conveys urine to the outside of the body 3) Describe the structure and function of the kidney. A. Structure 1. Renal fascia – thin external layer of fibrous connective tissue that anchors the kidneys to the surrounding structures in their retroperitoneal location in the abdomen 2. Adipose capsule – masses of adipose tissue (renal fat) surround the kidneys and hold them in place 3. Renal capsule – tough fibrous capsule that encloses the kidney 4. Hilum – concave area that is centrally located on the medial aspect of the kidney and allows for passage of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerves, and the ureters 5. Renal sinus – hollow chamber within the medial aspect of the kidney that is surrounded by kidney tissue 6. Renal pelvis – funnel-shaped structure on the medial part of the renal sinus that is formed by the expansion of the superior end of the ureter a. Major calyces (sing. calyx) – 3 or 4 cup-like tubes that form the extensions of the renal sinus i. Minor calyces – 8 to 14 cup-like tubes that extend from the major calyces and from the boundary of the renal sinus 7. Two distinct regions: a. Renal medulla – internal striated region of the kidney i. Renal pyramid – pyramidal mass of medullary tissue; base is superficial and apex is pointed toward the sinus Renal papillae – apex of the renal pyramid b. Renal cortex – superficial granular region of the kidney that extends into the kidney medulla in certain regions to form columns i. Renal column – extensions of the renal cortex that are located between the medullary pyramids
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Chapter 20 4) Explain the blood flow in the kidney. A. Arterial blood flows through the vessels of the kidney in the following sequence: 1. Renal artery – branch of the abdominal aorta that supplies the interlobar arteries 2. Interlobar arteries – located in renal columns and supply the arcuate arteries 3. Arcuate arteries – located in the juxtamedullary area and supply the cortical radiate arteries 4. Cortical radiate (interlobular) arteries – located in renal cortex and supply the afferent arterioles
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This note was uploaded on 01/14/2011 for the course BIO 142 taught by Professor Unknown during the Spring '10 term at Northern Virginia Community College.

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Chapter 20 - Chapter 20 1) Identify the general functions...

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