Chapter 15 - Chapter 15 1) Anatomy of the heart A. External...

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Chapter 15 1) Anatomy of the heart A. External Surface of the heart 1. Apex - pointed tip of the heart, bottom, directed toward the left hip a. rests on the diaphragm at about the level of the 5th intercostal space 2. Base - flattened region of the heart that points toward the right shoulder a. lies under the second rib b. area where great blood vessels emerge B. Coverings and Walls of the heart 1. Pericardium - consists of a superficial fibrous bag with a double- layered sac that encloses the heart a. Fibrous pericardium - superficial fibrous bag b. Serous pericardium - double-layered sac that encloses the heart i. Parietal pericardium - superficial layer of the deep double- layered sac that lines the fibrous pericardium in the area of the heart ii. Visceral pericardium (epicardium) - deep layer of the double-layered sac that covers the external surface of the heart Composition - serous membrane of connective tissue covered with epithelium and including blood capillaries, lymph capillaries and nerve fibers Function - forms a protective outer covering and secretes serous fluid 2. Myocardium - middle wall of the heart consisting of cardiac muscle that is arranged in whorls that squeeze blood out of the contracting chambers a. Composition - cardiac muscle tissue seperated by connective tissues and including blood capillaries, lymph capillaries and nerve fibers b. Function - contracts to pump blood 3. Endocardium - innermost layer of the heart wall a. Composition - membrane of epithelium and underlying connective tissue, including blood vessels and specialized muscle fibers b. Function - forms a protective inner lining of the chambers and valves C. Chambers of the Heart 1. Right atrium - superior receiving chamber on the right side a. deoxygenated blood flows into the right atrium under low pressure from the superior and inferior vena cavae and the coronary sinus b. then continues on to fill the right ventricle inferior to it 2. Left atrium - superior receiving chamber on the left side a. oxygenated blood flows into the left atrium under low pressure from the pulmonary veins b. then continues on to fill the left ventricle inferior to it
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Chapter 15 3. Right ventricle - inferior discharging chamber on the right side a. receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium b. propels blood out of the heart into the pulmonary trunk that branches to form the right and left pulmonary arteries 4. Left ventricle - inferior discharging chamber on the left side a. receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium b. propels blood out of the heart into the aorta D. Septa of the heart 1. Interatrial - partition in the superior midline that divides the right and left atria 2. Interventricular - partition in the inferior midline that divides the right and left ventricles E. Sulci of the heart 1. Atrioventricular (coronary) sulcus - groove on the superficial surface that encircles the surface of the heart between the atria and the ventricles a. houses the major blood vessels that supply the heart tissues
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Chapter 15 - Chapter 15 1) Anatomy of the heart A. External...

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