Chapter 14 - Chapter 14 I. Identify the major components of...

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Chapter 14 I. Identify the major components of the blood. A. Liquid - 55% 1. Plasma - fluid portion of circulating blood B. Solid - 45% 1. Platelets - 4.8% 2. Red blood cells - 95.1% 3. White blood cells - 0.1% II. List the three major types of blood cells and state the site of their production and their functions. A. Red blood cells (erythrocytes) - disc-shaped cell, lacking a nucleus, that is packed with the oxygen- carrying molecule hemoglobin 1. Erythropoiesis - red blood cell formation a. b. after birth - produced almost exclusively by red bone marrow 2. Function - transport gases which are in chemical combination with hemoglobin a. Oxyhemoglobin - oxygen in chemical combination with hemoglobin b. Carbaminohemoglobin - carbon dioxide in chemical combination with hemoglobin III.Identify the cellular components of blood on diagrams.
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Chapter 14 IV.State the life expectancy of red blood cells and outline the major events in their production and destruction. A. Average life span - 120 days B. Production 1. Hematopoietic stem cells (hemocytoblasts) divide and give rise to erythroblasts (red blood cell in immature state) a. can divide and give rise to many new cells b. nuclei soon shrink and are extruded producing erythrocytes 2. Erythropoietin (EPO) - kidney hormone that promotes red blood cell formation C. Destruction 1. Squeezing through the capillaries of active tissues damages red blood cells. 2. Macrophages in the spleen and liver phagocytize damaged red blood cells. 3. Hemoglobin from the red blood cells in decomposed into heme and globin. 4. Heme is decomposed into iron and biliverdin. a. biliverdin - a bile pigment produced from hemoglobin breakdown 5. Iron is made available for reuse in the synthesis of new hemoglobin or is stored in the liver as ferritin. 6. Some biliverdin is converted into bilirubin. a. bilirubin - a bile pigment produced from hemoglobin breakdown 7. Biliverdin and bilirubin are excreted in bile as bile pigments. 8. The globin is broken down into amino acids metabolized by macrophages or released into the blood. V. Identify three dietary factors affecting red blood cell production and state the source and function of each. Substance Source Function Vitamin B 12  (requires intrinsic  factor for absorption via small  intestine) Absorbed from small intestine DNA synthesis Iron Absorbed from small intestine; conserved during  red blood cell destruction and made available for  reuse Hemoglobin synthesis Folic acid
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Chapter 14 - Chapter 14 I. Identify the major components of...

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