Chapter 12 - Chapter 12 1 List and explain the function of...

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Chapter 12 1) List and explain the function of the five general groups of sensory receptors. A. Chemoreceptors – respond to changes in the concentration of chemicals (i.e. – smell & taste) B. Pain receptors (nociceptors) – respond to tissue damage, sensory nerve ending that transmits impulses interpreted as pain C. Thermoreceptors – sensitive to temperature changes D. Mechanorecetptors – sensory receptor sensitive to mechanical stimulation, such as changes in pressure or tension 1. Proprioceptors – nerve endings that sense changes in muscle or tendon tension 2. Baroreceptors (pressoreceptors) – sensory receptor in the blood vessel wall stimulated by changes in pressure 3. Stretch receptors – sense the degree of stretching in muscles, specifically in lungs degree of inflation E. Photoreceptors – nerve ending sensitive to light energy, sense light intensity 2) Define sensation and explain how it occurs. A. Sensation – a feeling resulting from the brain interpretation of sensory nerve impulses 1. when the brain become aware of sensory impulses 2. Perception – occurs when the brain interprets those sensory impulses B. All nerve impulses traveling from sensory receptors to brain are alike 1. resulting sensation depends on which region of the cerebral cortex receives the impulse C. Projection – process by which the brain causes a sensation to seem to come from the region of the body being stimulated 1. allows person to pinpoint the region of stimulation 3) Explain sensory adaptation. A. Sensory adaptation – sensory receptors becoming unresponsive or inhibition along the CNS pathways leading to sensory regions of the cerebral cortex after constant repeated stimulation 1. the ability to ignore unimportant stimuli (i.e. pressure of clothing against your skin) 2. once adaptation occurs, impulses are triggered only if the strength of the stimulus changes 4) List and define the three groups of somatic senses. A. Somatic Senses – receptors associated with the skin, muscles, joints and viscera 1. widely distributed throughout the body B. Three groups: 1. Exteroreceptive senses – associated with changes at the body surface a. sense of touch, pressure, temperature, and pain 2. Visceroreceptive (interoceptive) senses – associated with changes in viscera 3. Proprioceptive senses – associated with changes in muscles and tendons and in body position 5) List and describe the three kinds of touch and pressure receptors. A. Free nerve endings (Sensory nerve fibers) – common in epithelial tissues and are associated with sensations of touch and pressure B. Tactile (Meissner’s) corpuscles – touch receptors C. Lamellated (Pacinian) corpucles – sense deep pressure 6) Identify the two types of free nerve endings located in the skin that function as temperature receptors.
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