Chapter 11 - Chapter 11 1) Describer the protective...

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Chapter 11 1) Describer the protective coverings and related structures of the brain and spinal cord. A. Organs of CNS are surrounded by bones, membranes and fluid 1. Bones a. Brain lies in cranial cavity of skull b. Spinal cord occupies vertebral canal in vertebral column 2. Meninges (meninx - singular) - membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord a. Three layers: i. Dura Mater - outer layer; composed of tough, white, dense connective tissue with many blood vessels and nerves attaches to inside of cranial cavity and forms internal periosteum of skull bones Partitions: Falx cerebelli - separates the right and left cerebellar hemispheres Falx cerebri - extends downward into the longitudinal fissure and separates the right and left cerebral hemispheres Tentorium cerebelli - separates the occipital lobes of the cerebrum from the cerebellum Dural (sagittal) Sinuses - areas where the two layers of the dura mater split forming channels venus blood travels through these channels as it returns from the brain to vessels leading to the heart Continues into vertebral canal as strong, tubular sheath surrounding spinal cord but not attached Epidural space - space that lies between the dura matter and the bony vertebral column and contains blood vessels, loose connective tissue and fat tissue terminates as a blind sac at the level of the second sacral vertebra, below the end of the spinal cord ii. Arachnoid mater - fingerlike structure that projects from the subarachnoid space of the meninges into blood-filled dural sinuses and reabsorbs cerebrospinal fluid Subarachnoid space - real space formed by thin connective tissue strands that extend between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater that contains cerebrospinal fluid Arachnoid granulations - tiny, fingerlike structures that project from the subarachnoid space into the blood-filled dural sinuses that absorb CSF Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) - fluid in the ventricles of the brain, the subarachnoid space of the meninges, and the central canal of the spinal cord iii. Pia Mater - thin deepest meningeal layer composed of connective tissue that contains many blood vessels that aid in nourishing the underlying brain and spinal cord as it follow all the sulci and gyri
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Chapter 11 2) Identify the site of production of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricular system of the brain and trace its flow. A. Ventricles - cavities, such as brain ventricles filled with cerebrospinal fluid, or heart ventricles that contain blood 1. Lateral ventricles (2) - largest ventricles, extend anteriorly and posteriorly into the cerebral hemispheres a. First ventricle located in left cerebral hemisphere b. Second ventricle is in the right cerebral hemisphere 2. Third ventricle - located in the midline of the brain beneath the corpus callosum (bridge of axons that links the two cerebral hemispheres) a. communicates with lateral ventricles through openings ( interventricular foramina ) in its anterior end 3. Fourth ventricle
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This note was uploaded on 01/14/2011 for the course BIO 142 taught by Professor Unknown during the Spring '10 term at Northern Virginia Community College.

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Chapter 11 - Chapter 11 1) Describer the protective...

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