Chapter 10 - Chapter 10 1) State the functions of the...

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Chapter 10 1) State the functions of the nervous system. A. Sensory function 1. receptors react to physical and chemical changes in the surroundings and transmit information in the form of electrochemical changes (nerve impulses) along nerve fibers to the brain and spinal cord B. Integrative function 1. brings sensory information together in the brain and spinal cord and makes decisions that the motor functions act upon C. Motor function – 1. transmits nerve impulses along nerve fibers from the brain and spinal cord to cause muscle contraction and glandular secretion 2) List the subdivisions of the nervous system and identify them on diagrams. A. Central Nervous System (CNS) – the brain and the spinal cord B. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) – parts of the nervous system outside the central nervous system 1. Autonomic (Involuntary) Nervous System (ANS) – part of the nervous system that controls the viscera a. Parasympathetic Nervous System – part of the ANS that arises from the brain and sacral region of the spinal cord b. Sympathetic Nervous System – part of the ANS that arises from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord 2. Somatic (Voluntary) Nervous System (SNS) – motor pathways of the peripheral nervous system that lead to the skin and skeletal muscles 3) Identify the two major types of nerve tissue and state their functions. A. Neuron – nerve cell, specialized to react to physical and chemical changes in their surroundings 1. responsible for controlling muscle and glandular activity by conduction and transmission of nerve impulses B. Neuroglia – specialized cells of the nervous system that produce myelin, communicate between cells, maintain the ionic environment, provide growth factors that support neurons, and provide structural support 4) Describe the structure of a neuron. A. Cell Body (Perikaryon) – swollen portion of the neuron that is enclosed in a cell membrane and has the normal cellular structures suspended within it and some additional structures that are unique to nerurons 1. Neurofibrils – slender filaments that extend through the cytoplasm resembling roadways that circumvent the Nissl Bodies 2. Nissl Bodies (Chromatophilic Substance) – dense aggregations of rough endoplasmic reticulum that represent sites of protein synthesis 3. Lipofuscin – a golden-brown substance that is though to accumulate as a result of the aging process and is believed to be a by-product of lysosomal activity 4. Axon Hillock – slight elevation of the cell body that extends to form the axon 5. Trigger Zone – first part of the axon that contains a great number of voltage-gated sodium channels
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Chapter 10 B. Nerve Fibers – extensions of the cell body of most neurons 1. Dendrites – afferent fiber that function in receiving nerve impulses from receptors or other neurons and conducting them to the cell body 2. Axon – a single elongated extension that functions in conducting impulses away from the cell body a. Axon Collaterals
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Chapter 10 - Chapter 10 1) State the functions of the...

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