Chapter 8 - Chapter 8 I Define joint(articulation A...

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Chapter 8 I. Define joint (articulation). A. Joints (articulations) – the union of two or more bones II. List the three types of joints (when classified according to the type of tissue that binds the bones together) and their several subtypes. Describe the movement afforded by each type. Classify all joints of an articulated skeleton using the terminology. A. Joints grouped by degree of movement: 1. Synarthrotic – immovable 2. Amphiarthrotic – slightly moveable 3. Diarthrotic – freely moveable B. Fibrous joints – two or more bones joined by connective tissue containing many fibers; between bones in close contact 1. Syndesmosis – type of joint in which long fibers of connective tissue unite bones a. bound by a sheet (interosseous membrane) or bundle of dense connective tissue (interosseous ligament) b. flexible and may be twisted; amphiarthrotic joint 2. Suture – immovable joints, such as that between the flat bones of the skull a. synarthrotic joint 3. Gomphosis – type of joint in which a cone-shaped process is fastened in a bony socket a. synarthortic joint C. Cartilaginous joints – two or more bones joined by cartilage, usually hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage 1. Synchondrosis – type of joint in which bands of hyaline cartilage unite bones a. temporary structures that disappear during growth and become synostosis (bony joint) b. synarthrotic joint 2. Syphysis – slightly movable joint between bones separated by a pad of fibrocartilage a. amphiarthrotic joints D. Synovial joints – freely movable joint; diarthrotic joints 1. more complex structurally than fibrous or cartilaginous joints 2. Ball-and-socket joint (spheroidal joint) – a bone with a spherical mass on one end joined with a bone that has a complementary hollow depression a. permits movements in all planes, as well as rotational movement around a central axis 3. Condylar joint (ellipsoidal joint) – bone with an ovoid projection at one end joined with a bone with a complementary elliptical cavity a. permits movements in different plains i. rotational movement is not possible 4. Gliding joint (plane joint) – two joined bones with nearly flat surfaces or slightly curved a. permits sliding or back-and-forth motion and twisting movements 5. Hinge joint – two bones joined where the convex end of one bone fits into the complementary concave end of another a. permits movement in one plane only i. resembles the hinge of a door 6. Pivot joint (trochoid joint) – end of a bone moving within a ring formed by another bone and connective tissue a. movement is limited to rotation around a central axis 7. Saddle joint (sellar joint) – two bones joined each with a convex and concave surface that are complementary a. permits a variety of movements, mainly in two planes III.Identify the following structural features on three types of joints: A. Articular capsule – also called joint capsule; an envelope, attached to the end of each bone at the joint, enclosing the cavity of a synovial joint B. Articular cartilage
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