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Review Part 2 - Review of Part II Methods and Formulas...

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Review of Part II Methods and Formulas Basic Matrix Theory: Identity matrix: AI = A , IA = A , and I v = v Inverse matrix: AA 1 = I and A 1 A = I Norm of a matrix: | A | ≡ max | v | =1 | A v | A matrix may be singular or nonsingular. See Lecture 10. Solving Process: Gaussian Elimination produces LU decomposition Row Pivoting Back Substitution Condition number: cond( A ) max | δ x | / | x | | δA | | A | + | δ b | | b | = max parenleftbigg Relative error of output Relative error of inputs parenrightbigg . A big condition number is bad; in engineering it usually results from poor design. LU factorization: PA = LU. Solving steps: Multiply by P: b = P b Backsolve: L y = b Backsolve: U x = y Eigenvalues and eigenvectors: A nonzero vector v is an eigenvector ( ev ) and a number λ is its eigenvalue ( ew ) if A v = λ v . Characteristic equation: det( A λI ) = 0 Equation of the eigenvector: ( A λI ) v = 0 Complex ew’s: Occur in conjugate pairs: λ 1 , 2 = α ± and ev ’s must also come in conjugate pairs: w = u ± i v .
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