Lecture 13A plant anatomy

Lecture 13A plant anatomy - Figure 35.1 Plant Anatomy and...

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Unformatted text preview: Figure 35.1 Plant Anatomy and Development Overview: No two Plants Are Alike To some people The fanwort is an intrusive weed, but to others it is an attractive aquarium plant This plant exhibits plasticity The ability to alter itself in response to its environment Figure 35.1 In addition to plasticity Entire plant species have by natural selection accumulated characteristics of morphology that vary little among plants within the species The plant body has a hierarchy of organs, tissues, and cells Plants, like multicellular animals Have organs composed of different tissues, which are in turn composed of cells The Three Basic Plant Organs: Roots, Stems, and Leaves The basic morphology of vascular plants Reflects their evolutionary history as terrestrial organisms that draw nutrients from two very different environments: below-ground and above-ground Three basic organs evolved : roots, stems, and leaves They are organized into a root system and a shoot system Figure 35.2 Reproductive shoot (flower) Terminal bud Node Internode Terminal bud Vegetative shoot Blade Petiole Stem Leaf Taproot Lateral roots Root system Shoot system Axillary bud Roots A root Is an organ that anchors the vascular plant Absorbs minerals and water Often stores organic nutrients In most plants The absorption of water and minerals occurs near the root tips, where vast numbers of tiny root hairs increase the surface area of the root Figure 35.3 Many plants have modified roots Figure 35.4ae (a) Prop roots (b) Storage roots (c) Strangling aerial roots (d) Buttress roots (e) Pneumatophores Stems A stem is an organ consisting of An alternating system of nodes, the points at which leaves are attached Internodes, the stem segments between nodes An axillary bud Is a structure that has the potential to form a lateral shoot, or branch A terminal bud Is located near the shoot tip and causes elongation of a young shoot Many plants have modified stems Figure 35.5ad Rhizomes. The edible base of this ginger plant is an example of a rhizome, a horizontal stem that grows just below the surface or emerges and grows along the surface. (d) Tubers. Tubers, such as these red potatoes, are enlarged ends of rhizomes specialized for storing food. The eyes arranged in a spiral pattern around a potato are clusters of axillary buds that mark the nodes. (c) Bulbs. Bulbs are vertical, underground shoots consisting mostly of the enlarged bases of leaves that store food. You can see the many layers of modified leaves attached to the short stem by slicing an onion bulb lengthwise. (b) Stolons. Shown here on a strawberry plant, stolons are horizontal stems that grow along the surface. These runners enable a plant to reproduce asexually, as plantlets form at nodes along each runner....
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Lecture 13A plant anatomy - Figure 35.1 Plant Anatomy and...

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