Animal Form and Function

Animal Form and Function - Animal Form and Function 1...

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Animal Form and Function 1 ANIMAL FORM AND FUNCTION (assigned text readings: 40:852-862, 868) FORM - FUNCTION RELATIONSHIPS Relationships Between Animal Form and Function our previous studies have revealed that structure and function are closely related. .. denaturation of an enzyme leads to loss of enzyme activity (see fig. 5.23) sickle-cell disease can be caused by a single amino acid change in hemoglobin (see fig. 5.22) phospholipid structure is an important determinant of membrane fluidity (see fig. 7.5b) animal form and function are closely related at all organizational levels. .. molecular and subcellular levels. .. many animal cell membranes are rich in cholesterol which serves to maintain membrane fluidity over a wide range of environmental temperatures specialized animal proteins like collagen are secreted by animal cells to help hold them together and provide an external framework these long, rope-like triple helix proteins are very tough and have a very high tensile strength; stability is aided by H-bonds between the chains of the triple helix cell and tissue levels. .. epithelial cells lining the gut have a brush border that increases the total absorptive surface area over which nutrients can be taken into the cells muscle tissue consists of cells with highly complex arrangements of cytoskeletal filaments and molecular motor proteins that allow the muscle cells and the tissue to lengthen and shorten organ, organ system, and organismal levels. .. the left ventricle of the heart that pumps blood out to the systemic circuit is much thicker and more muscular than the right ventricle that pumps blood into the pulmonary circuit the tubes of our respiratory system is very highly branched and the branches end in air sacs ( alveoli ) that are lined with very thin cells just one cell layer thick. .. allows for very rapid, very efficient diffusion of gases through them, to and from the air sacs and the extracellular fluid on the opposite side
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Animal Form and Function 2 because of these close relationships between form and function, the study of an animal’s anatomy can provide insights about its physiology (how those structures actually function) in addition, comparative anatomy can reveal systems in different organisms that may have similar functions, and comparative physiology can reveal the similarities and differences in the way animals accomplish particular tasks such as ridding the body of waste or transporting oxygen to tissues e.g. consider the figures below (fig. 44.12 and 44.14d). .. the structures suggest that the two systems have similar functions each consists of a network of fine blood vessels around a convoluted tube that leads to a sac- like structure that opens to the body surface both structures are involved in the collection and excretion of wastes from blood. .. a metanephridium of an earthworm (left fig.) and a nephron of a human kidney (right fig.) fig. 44.12 Metanephridia of an earthw fig. 44.14d Nephron of a
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This note was uploaded on 01/15/2011 for the course BIOL 190B taught by Professor Dr.davidcreasey during the Spring '10 term at University of Victoria.

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Animal Form and Function - Animal Form and Function 1...

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