Hormones & The Endocriine Systempart2

Hormones & The Endocriine Systempart2 - Hormones...

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Hormones & The Endocrine System; Page -10- insulin and glucagon are antagonistic hormones since they have an opposite effect in the body insulin decreases blood [Glc] glucagon increases blood [Glc] when blood [Glc] rises above the set point of 90 mg/100 mL. .. insulin is released from β (beta) cells of the pancreas into interstitial fluid released in high concentration, insulin can then be distributed by the circulatory system insulin responsive cells (those with insulin receptors in the plasma membrane) then engage in a signal transduction cascade that results in pre-formed vesicles (with Glc transport proteins present in their membranes) fusing with the plasma membrane of those cells and thus depositing Glc transporters in plasma membranes. .. this makes those cells much more able to take up Glc from extracellular fluid, resulting in decreased blood [Glc] when blood [Glc] falls below the set point of 90 mg/100 mL. .. glucagon is released from α (alpha) cells of the pancreas into interstitial fluid glucagon responsive cells, principally hepatocytes of the liver, then engage in a signal transduction cascade that has several effects, including increased hydrolysis of glycogen that results in producing free glucose molecules within the hepatocytes export of glucose by glucose transporters in the plasma membrane of those cells, resulting in increased blood [Glc] inhibition of glycogen synthase , the enzyme responsible for synthesizing glycogen from glucose monomers recall that the pancreas is a dual function gland. .. it has both endocrine and exocrine functions most of the tissue in the pancreas is involved in its exocrine functions 1 only ~1-2% of the pancreas is involved with its endocrine functions small clusters of endocrine cells are scattered throughout the (mostly) exocrine tissue of the
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Hormones & The Endocriine Systempart2 - Hormones...

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