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Unformatted text preview: 290 Transmission System Engineering Transmitter Transmitter Transmitter Receiver Receiver Receiver Mux Demux Power amplifier Line amplifier Preamplifier . . . . . . Figure 5.1 Components of a WDM link. margin provided in the system. Usually the required bit error rates are of the order of 10 9 to 10 15 , typically 10 12 . The BER depends on the amount of noise as well as other impairments that are present in the system. Unless otherwise stated, we will assume that non-return-to-zero (NRZ) modulation is used. In some specific cases, such as chromatic dispersion, we consider both NRZ and return-to-zero (RZ) modulation. The physical layer is also responsible for the link initialization and link take- down procedures, which are necessary to prevent exposure to potentially harmful laser radiation. This aspect is dealt with in Chapter 8. We will look at the different components that are part of a system, including the transmitters, receivers, optical amplifiers, wavelength multiplexers, demultiplex- ers and switches, and the fiber itself, and we will discuss various forms of system...
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- Spring '09