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Optical Networks - _12_5 Burst Switching_137

Optical Networks - _12_5 Burst Switching_137 - 688 Photonic...

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688 Photonic Packet Switching the packet is again deflected. Such limited-buffer deflection-routing strategies achieve higher throughputs compared to the purest form of deflection routing without any buffers whatsoever. We refer to [Max89, FBP95] for the quantitative details. Livelock When a network employs deflection routing, there is the possibility that a packet will be deflected forever and never reach its destination. This phenomenon has been called both deadlock [GG93] and livelock [LNGP96], but the term livelock seems to be more appropriate. Livelock is somewhat similar to routing loops encountered in store-and-forward networks (see Section 6.5), but routing loops are a transient phe- nomenon there, whereas livelock is an inherent characteristic of deflection routing. Livelock can be eliminated by suitably designed deflection rules. However, prov- ing that any particular deflection rule is livelock-free seems to be hard. We refer to [GG93, BDG95] for further discussion of this issue (under the term deadlock ). One
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