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Optical Networks - _12_6 Testbeds_138

Optical Networks - _12_6 Testbeds_138 - 12.6 Testbeds 689...

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12.6 Testbeds 689 Table 12.2 Key features of photonic packet-switching testbeds described in Section 12.6. Testbed Topology Bit Rate Functions Demonstrated KEOPS Switch 2.5 Gb/s 4 × 4 switch, (per port) subnanosecond switching, all-optical wavelength conversion tunable lasers, packet synchronizer KEOPS Switch 10 Gb/s 16 × 16 broadcast/select, (per port) subnanosecond switching FRONTIERNET Switch 2.5 Gb/s 16 × 16 , (per port) tunable laser NTT Switch 10 Gb/s 4 × 4 broadcast/select (per port) Synchrolan Bus 40 Gb/s Bit-interleaved data transmission (BT Labs) (aggregate) and reception BT Labs Switch 100 Gb/s Routing in a 1 × 2 switch based (per port) on optical header recognition Princeton Switch 100 Gb/s Packet compression, (per port) TOAD-based demultiplexing AON Helix (bus) 100 Gb/s Optical phase lock loop, pulse (aggregate) generation, compression, storage CORD Star 2.5 Gb/s Contention resolution (per port) packet switching, one of the main issues with burst switching is to determine the buffer sizes needed at the nodes to achieve reasonable burst drop probabilities when there is contention. The same techniques that we discussed earlier in Section 12.4 apply here as well. 12.6 Testbeds Several PPS testbeds have been built over the years. The main focus of most of these testbeds is the demonstration of certain key PPS functions such as multiplexing and demultiplexing, routing/switching, header recognition, optical clock recovery (synchronization or bit-phase alignment), pulse generation, pulse compression, and pulse storage. We will discuss some of these testbeds in the remainder of this section. The key features of these testbeds are summarized in Table 12.2.
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690 Photonic Packet Switching 12.6.1 KEOPS KEOPS (Keys to Optical Packet Switching) [Gam98, Gui98, RMGB97] was a significant project undertaken by a group of research laboratories and universi- ties in Europe. Its predecessor was the ATMOS (ATM optical switching) project [Mas96, RMGB97]. KEOPS demonstrated several of the building blocks for PPS and put together two separate demonstrators illustrating different switch architec- tures. The building blocks demonstrated include all-optical wavelength converters using cross-phase modulation in semiconductor optical amplifiers (see Section 3.8) up to 40 GHz, a packet sychronizer at 2.5 Gb/s using a tunable delay line, tunable lasers, and low-loss integrated indium phosphide Mach-Zehnder–type electro-optic switches. The demonstrations of network functionality were performed at a data rate of 2.5 Gb/s and 10 Gb/s, with the packet header being transmitted at 622 Mb/s. The KEOPS switches used wavelengths internal to the switch as a key tool in performing the switching and buffering, instead of using large optical space switches. In this sense, the KEOPS demonstrators are variations of the architecture of Figure 12.20.
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