Optical Networks - _Chapter 1 Introduction to Optical Networks_9

Optical Networks - _Chapter 1 Introduction to Optical Networks_9

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1 chapter Introduction to Optical Networks A s we begin the new millennium , we are seeing dramatic changes in the telecommunications industry that have far-reaching implications for our lifestyles. There are many drivers for these changes. First and foremost is the con- tinuing, relentless need for more capacity in the network. This demand is fueled by many factors. The tremendous growth of the Internet and the World Wide Web, both in terms of number of users and the amount of time, and thus bandwidth taken by each user, is a major factor. Internet traffic has been growing rapidly for many years. Estimates of growth have varied considerably over the years, with some early growth estimates showing a doubling every four to six months. Despite the variations, these growth estimates are always high, with more recent estimates at about 50% annu- ally. Meanwhile, broadband access technologies such as digital subscriber line (DSL)
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Unformatted text preview: and cable modems, which provide bandwidths per user on the order of 1 Mb/s, has been deployed widely. For example, in 2008 about 55% of the adults in the United States had broadband access at home, while only 10% had access through dialup lines of 28–56 kb/s. Fiber to the home has shown steady growth with Asian markets showing the highest market penetration. At the same time, businesses today rely on high-speed networks to conduct their businesses. These networks are used to interconnect multiple locations within a company as well as between companies for business-to-business transactions. Large corporations that used to lease 155 Mb/s lines to interconnect their internal sites are commonly leasing 1 Gb/s connections today. There is also a strong correlation between the increase in demand and the cost of bandwidth. Technological advances have succeeded in continously reducing the 1...
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