Summary229SOAFilterfsfsfpfp2ffps-2ffps-2ffsp-2ffps-Figure 3.79Wavelength conversion by four-wave mixing in a semiconductor opticalamplifier.efficiency goes down significantly as the wavelength separation between the signaland probe is increased. We will study the conversion efficiency of four-wave mixingin Section 5.8.4.SummaryWe have studied many different optical components in this chapter. Couplers, iso-lators, and circulators are all commodity components. Many of the optical filtersthat we studied are commercially available, with fiber gratings, thin-film multicavityfilters, and arrayed waveguide gratings used in commercial WDM systems.Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) are widely deployed and indeed servedas a key enabler for WDM. EDFA designs can incorporate multiple stages andgain-ﬂattening filters and provide midstage access between the multiple stages toinsert other elements such as dispersion compensating modules and wavelengthadd/drop multiplexers. Distributed Raman amplifiers are being used in conjunction
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