Summary505Since the Class I safety standard also specifies that emission limits must be main-tained during single-fault conditions, the open fiber control circuitry at each node isduplicated for redundancy.SummaryNetwork management is essential to operate and maintain any network. Operatingcosts dominate equipment costs for most telecom networks, making good networkmanagement imperative in ensuring the smooth operation of the network. The mainfunctions of network management include configuration (of equipment and connec-tions in the network), performance monitoring, and fault management. In addition,security and accounting are also management functions. Most functions of manage-ment are performed through a hierarchy of centralized management systems, butcertain functions, such as restoration against failures, or the use of defect indicatorsto suppress alarms, are done in a distributed fashion. Several management protocolsexist, the main ones being TL-1, SNMP, and CMIP.
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