This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.View Full Document
Unformatted text preview: Laboratory Investigation: Determining Ideal Conditions for Amylase Activity with Starch Background Information At the AICCS, researchers will be trying to produce a synthetic keratan sulfate that may be used in a corneal transplant. Keratan sulfate, a structural carbohydrate, is a polysaccharide which is sulfated (a hydroxyl group has been replaced by a sulfate ion on a sugar) that is found in many connective tissues. In order to produce these molecules, researchers will be using combinations of chemicals and enzymes. Figure 1: General structure of keratan sulfate cross-linking agents. The cross-linkers are sites where the disaccharides units are linked together. (from AICCS, would like to have a couple of the dissacharides linked together to show polymer) Starch is a polysaccharide formed by linking thousands of glucose molecules together. Starch can be broken down amylase. Amylase allows a reaction to occur at the cross- linkage between water and the starch molecule. The products of this digestive process are dextrin, maltotriose, maltose, and glucose. + H 2 O → maltose and glucose Figure 2: The reaction of starch with water to form products, showing amylase as a catalyst (would like it to look like Figure 1, for consistency and copyright issues) Researchers at AICCS manipulate conditions for an enzyme to maximize the yields and results of their studies. The reaction rate depends upon: 1. substrate (reactants) concentration 2. enzyme (catalyst) concentration 3. pH 4. temperature. Although pH is a factor in which affects the reaction rate of an enzyme, it will not be a variable tested. The ideal pH for the bacterial amylase is approximately a pH of 7, which will be used for these reactions. Most enzymes have a maximum activity in a narrow pH and must be in a buffered solution. By using starch, amylase, iodine and Benedict’s reagent, we can monitor the progress of the reaction qualitatively and quantitatively. We can visually see the change in color because I 3- is yellow when starch is not present and black when it is present. Benedict’s reagent will be green when sugars have not been produced and red once the reaction has progressed. A spectrometer is used to measure the absorbance of light from a sample. Spectrometry is one of the tools which AICCS uses to determine the identity of products of reactions....
View Full Document
- Spring '08
- Biology, Starch Solution, benedicts reagent, well. Mix. Record, bacterial amylase solution