Intro and Methods- Photosynthesis coursehero

Intro and Methods- Photosynthesis coursehero - The Effects...

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The Effects of Color (Wavelength) on the Rate of Photosynthesis Piyush Taparia GLA: Peter Baas Biology 1107L Wednesdays 2:30-4:30 p.m. Spring 2008 Lab Partners: Abby Boorstin, Katelyn Heck, and Jane Hettinger
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Introduction Background Information: Energy comes to Earth mainly in the form of light (visible radiation) from the sun. Approximately 70% of this light is absorbed by Earth, warming it. Since it has become warmer than its surroundings, Earth radiates energy in the form of heat energy. “Only a small fraction of the total amount of light energy striking Earth is converted into chemical energy during photosynthesis” (Hunt 2003). Energy flow through an ecosystem is a one- way process. Energy transformations in living systems involve the oxidation and reduction of carbon. The oxidation of carbon releases energy and is called cellular respiration. ATP functions in cells as a temporary carrier of energy. NAD and NADP also function as temporary energy carriers in cells. NADPH is the reduced, energy-rich form of NADP and functions in photosynthesis. The basic Photosynthesis reaction is: 6CO 2 + 12H 2 0 + Energy (light) C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O There are several principal events in photosynthesis. “Carbon is reduced. The electrons needed for carbon reduction come from H 2 0. O 2 is released as a by-product when water is split to provide electrons. Energy is stored in the form of reduced carbon” (Hunt 3). The chloroplast converts light energy from the sun into chemical energy. “The chloroplast has two membrane systems, thylakoids and envelope, with specialized membrane proteins for photosynthesis” (Ephritikhine et al. 2004). “Photosynthesis is the major source of energy for all living organisms. Autotrophic (self-feeding) organisms obtain the energy they require for life directly through the process of photosynthesis. All heterotrophic life
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depends on organic compounds produced by the autotrophs (Grantham 2007). A terrestrial ecosystem can “gain carbon through photosynthesis and lose it primarily as carbon dioxide through respiration in autotrophs and heterotrophs” (Heimann, et al. 2008). Photosynthesis can be divided into two general steps. In the first step, light energy is trapped to produce NADPH and ATP. Since light is required for the production of both of these, this step is referred to as the light-dependent reaction of photosynthesis. “Light energy also generates ATP from ADP through a process called photophosphorylation” (Grantham 3-2). The second step of photosynthesis results in the production of glucose from CO 2 . This process is often called CO 2 fixation, or the Calvin Cycle. This experiment is being conducted to test the effects on the photosynthetic rate by altering certain variable. In this experiment, we will be testing the effect of different colored filters on the rate of photosynthesis. Some people believe that “green light can better penetrate the plant canopy and potentially increase plant growth by increasing photosynthesis from the leaves” (HH, et al. 2004).
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