Chapter 8 Agriculture and Food Production

Chapter 8 Agriculture and Food Production - Chapter 8...

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Chapter 8 Agriculture and Food Production Agrarian: referring to the culture communities and the type of tenure system that determines access to land and the kind of cultivation practices employed there. o To describe the way of life that is deeply embedded in the demands of agricultural production. Agriculture: a science, art, and business directed at the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance and profit. Hunting and gathering: activities whereby propel feed themselves through killing wild animals and fish and gathering fruits, roots, nuts, and other edible plants to sustain themselves. o Considered subsistence activities, in that people who practice them procure only what they need to consume. Subsistence agriculture: farming for direct consumption by the producers; not for sale o A system in which agriculturalists consume all they produce. o Diminishing with increasing numbers of places o Widely practiced in periphery Shifting cultivation Intensive subsistence agriculture Pastoralism Commercial agriculture: farming primarily for sale, not direct consumption o A system in which farmers produces crops and animals primarily for sale rather than for direct consumption by themselves and their families. o During the 20 th century, the dominant agricultural system in the core countries became commercial agriculture. Shifting cultivation: system in which farmers aims to maintain soil fertility by rotating the fields within which cultivation occurs. o A form of agriculture usually found in tropical forests, farmers aim to maintain soil fertility by rotating the fields they cultivate. Involves limited amount of labor and other resources to cultivation. Crop rotation: method of maintaining soil fertility in which the fields under cultivation remain the same but the crop being planted is changed.
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o In which the fields under cultivation remain the same but the crops planted are changed to balance the types of nutrients withdrawn from and delivered to the soil. Globally distributed in the tropics- especially in the rain forests of Central and West Africa; the Amazon in the South Africa; and Southeast Asia, including Thailand, Burma, Malaysia, Indonesia- where climate, rainfall, and vegetation combine to produce soils lacking nutrients. Slash-and-burn: system of cultivation in which plants are cropped close to the ground, left to dry for a period, and then ignited. Swidden: land that is cleared using the slash-and-burn process and is ready for cultivation. Intertillage: practice of mixing different seeds and seeding in the same swidden. o Reduces the risks of disasters form crop failure and increase the nutritional balance of the diet. Intensive subsistence agriculture:
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Chapter 8 Agriculture and Food Production - Chapter 8...

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