10-10-10-15Respiration

10-10-10-15Respiration - RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Lecture 7...

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Lecture 7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
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PRINCIPAL ORGANS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Two Lungs, within the right and left sides of the chest (thoracic cavity) separated by the heart. Air passes into and out of the lungs through passages and tubes called upper airways. Air flow depends on muscular diaphragm and muscles and bones of the thoracic cavity (FIG. 5.1). Lower Airways end in the alveoli which make up the major portion of the lungs. Many Pulmonary Vessels transport blood throughout the lungs. MAIN FUNCTIONS FOR HOMEOSTASIS Gas Exchange and Sound Production. Gas exchange involves obtaining oxygen and eliminating carbon dioxide. Sound production is covered briefly at end of lecture. Gas Exchange Respiratory system obtains oxygen by transferring oxygen from the air into the blood flowing through the lungs. Circulatory system transports oxygen throughout the body. Respiratory system eliminates carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) by allowing it to move out of the blood in pulmonary vessels and into the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is transported from body cells to the lungs by the circulatory system. Carbon dioxide must be removed because it combines with water to produce carbonic acid, and excess carbonic acid upsets the acid/base balance of the body. Since some acidic materials are needed for the Bicarbonate Buffer System to achieve a normal acid/base balance, the respiratory system must eliminate some but not too much CO 2 . Many other acids in the body can increase blood acidity but the respiratory system can help maintain acid/base balance by eliminating more CO 2 . In exercise O 2 utilization, CO 2 production, metabolic acid production all increase. To maintain homeostasis, negative feedback systems ensure that gas exchange by the respiratory system increases. Thus, a person Page 2
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breathes more heavily after beginning physical activity. The maximum that gas exchange can increase during activity is the reserve capacity of the respiratory system: This is one factor in how vigorously a person can exercise, due to feeling completely out of breath. The maximum functional capacities of the circulatory, nervous, and muscle systems also play a role in the maximum rate of physical activity. Three operations are involved in gas exchange. Ventilation involves moving air through the airways into and out of the lungs. Perfusion of the lungs involves movement of blood through the pulmonary vessels. Diffusion causes the O 2 in inhaled air to move into the blood while CO 2 exits into the air in the lungs. VENTILATION Ventilation involves inhaling (inspiration) and exhaling (expiration). Inspiration Air around the body is under atmospheric pressure. A balloon inflates/deflates when higher air pressure is applied to inside/outside. Inspiration occurs for the same reason that a balloon inflates. Air
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10-10-10-15Respiration - RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Lecture 7...

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