Gero 310 F'09 repro female

Gero 310 F'09 repro female - Normal function, physiology...

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Unformatted text preview: Normal function, physiology and anatomy functions Female reproductive system Chp 13 1. reproduction- main goal of living species is to successfully reproduce; principle of evolution - involves haploid gametes: ovum (oocytes, egg) 2. sexual activity- psychological & social functions 3. hormone production- gonadal sex steroid hormones: estrogen , progesterone anatomy * gonads- ovaries , bilateral * genitals- vulva : labia major, labia minor: folds that cover vagina- clitoris : with excitement enlarges w/ blood like penis * accessory glands, structures- uterus , oviduct hormones- estrogen & progesterone- produced by follicular cells in ovary- other hormones important for functioning of female reproductive tract: * LH: leutinizing hormone- secreted by anterior pituitary * FSH: follicle stimulating hormone- secreted by anterior pituitary- system is designed to produce periodically a single gamete for fertilization- as opposed to male system which continually produces millions of gametes under more steady hormone levels reproductive process- ovaries consist of a fibrous, vascularized material called stroma- w/in the stroma are numerous immature follicles * follicles are clusters of cells containing one ovum reproductive process (cont.)- general overview: * ovarian cycle : process of preparing ovum for fertilization- four processes: 1. rise and fall of pituitary LH and FSH 2. rise and fall of estrogen and progesterone 3. follicle development and ovulation 4. growth of uterine endometrial layer reproductive process (cont.)- more detailed description of process: * leutinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secreted by anterior pituitary- LH and FSH stimulate several follicles to begin developing- only one will fully mature (others degenerate) reproductive process (cont.) * uterus has inner endometrium , middle myometrium (smooth muscle), and outer uterine wall that attaches uterus * maturing follicles secrete estrogen; gradual increase in estrogen (17 -estradiol) * high estrogen levels: 1) cause surge of FSH and LH 2) cause endometrium layer of uterus to thicken 1 2 reproductive process (cont.) * the LH/FSH surge causes ovulation : the one mature follicle bursts, releasing its ovum * the released ovum is swept into oviducts (Fallopian tubes) by cilia at oviduct opening- fertilization typically occurs in oviducts- site of tubal ligation (aka "tubes tied") for birth control- some birth control pills keep estrogen levels steady, preventing LH/FSH surge and thus avoiding ovulation reproductive process (cont.) reproductive process (cont.) * the remainder of the burst follicle develops into the corpus luteum * progesterone promotes, maintains endometrium growth * this process called menstruation * this cellular mass produces progesterone (some estrogen) * if no fertilization, corpus luteum degenerates, progesterone levels fall, and thickened endometrium sloughs off schematic overview of follicle development, ovulation, growth and degeneration of corpus luteum...
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Gero 310 F'09 repro female - Normal function, physiology...

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