111706 - Diet and Nutritin Principles Specific Nutrients...

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Unformatted text preview: Diet and Nutritin Principles Specific Nutrients Abnormal Conditions Need for Nutritional Homeostasis Digestive system supplies nutrients Cells require nutritional homeostasis 1. energy 2. synthesis 3. assist chemical reactions 4. volume control Relationships between Diet and Nutrition Eating a proper diet results in nutritional homeostasis FIGURE 11.1 ‘The Food Guide Pyramid: A Guide to Daily Food Choices. (From US. Department of Agriculture and US. Department of Health and H1 cm Services.) KEY I Fat {naturaliy OCCumng and added] Y Sugars {added} Fats, oiis and sweets (use sparingly] These symbols show that fat and added sugars come mostiy from fats, oiIs, and sweets. but can be part of or added to foods from the other food grows as wvl; Milk, yogurt, and cheese Meat, pouitry, fish, dry beans. {2—3 servings] eggs, and nuts {2—3 servings} Vegetables Fro its {36 servings] {2—4 servings} Bread, cereaE, rice and pasta (6—7? servings} Hon to Use The Daily Food Guide What counts as one serving? Breads. Careals, Rice, and Pasta Milk, ‘mgurt, and Cheese Fats, Oiis. and Sweets 1. siice 0!- bread 1 LLH: u' mnk or \.'(‘!'_:...'T LLMIT CALORIES FRON‘I THESE 4 cup of cooked mac or pasta '1 'T _' x‘um'm m mew vsueaallv If mu wed to lose weight 1 _ . 3 mm 0' cocked cmai Meat, anm, Fish. Dry Beans, "1 Ounce of ready—to—eat cereal Eggs, .md Nuts V l hi I I. -’- mum'us Dl' {'nrakl-tl 1mm ihe amount V0” ea‘t may 0° 93° 3 e‘ ' _ mete than one serving. For "r cup of raw or cooked M’getabm: ""-"'1 Wm”? "’ ="n example, a dim pomon of 1‘ cup of leafy raw vegetamm (Hz-.112 —I- n up ul :(m'km': heut'fix spaghetti wmid count as mo ' I or 1 t"_‘-_; {W [dllif"-Fl(‘t"‘l‘1 ml or three sen‘mgs or paSta' Fm" [rt-mm: buHL‘r .15 I mmu- {\l hum . 1 1 . c 0‘ fruit or Ion wedge mun l.muul T xt‘runnl 3 . 3- cup of lute 1 . ‘ cup or canned hwt “'3 cup of dried fruit "a" 7 1 '4' A Proper Diet Caveat - reconnnendations that follow may be improper for individuals who are in unusual situations. The Food Guide Pyramid (Figure 11.1) Three suggestions Six food groups Selecting serving sizes Improving food groups Three recommendations avoid fat, sat fat, cholesterol, sugar, sodium consume starch and fiber drink alcohol moderately RDA = Recommended Dielaty Allowances diet based on chemical composition 1+ A Proper Diet (continued) RDA specific for certain individuals men and women have different RDAs age catagories 25 to 50 and 51 and older Energy requirements kilo-calorie = Calorie l kilocalorie = 1000 calories differ for individuals 0.8 to 1.0 gram protein per kilogram weight 1.0 g protein = 4 kcal how much protein should a 94 kg man eat? U.S.RDA = United States RecomendecLDaily Allowance ESADDI = Estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intakes "J l Comparing Proper Die-ts for Younger and Older Admits Fiber, protein and calcium intake increase Total energy and Vitamin A decrease Reason: lack of activity Malnutrition nutritional non-homeostasis Onset example of quick onset - water deprivation slow onset - diet low in essential nutrient - nutrient excess, Vitamin A Nature of the Problem - difficult to assess malnutrition often overlooked Consequences body cells function less effectively decreased life enjoyment disease WU nomad-.- Malnutrition Among the Elderly Widespread and occurs frequently Factors include biological, social, psychological, or economic problems Reducing and Preventing Malnutrition Evaluate nutritional status Identify factors contributing to malnutrition Adjust diet difficulties Use supplements Continue this process Energy and Body Weight Only some of the energy from food is used- immediately Reserve energy stored as glycogen and Fat Dietary sources of energy carbohydrates lipids proteins Obtaining energy from molecules chemical bonds glycolysisof sugars, cytoplasm Kreb’s cycle, electron transport, oxidative - phosphorylation occur in the mitochondria ATP — adenosinetriphosphate fats and amino acids urea Energy and Body Weight (continued) Oxygen in, carbon dioxide and water out Lactic acid, ketoacids (ketones) Kilocalories proteins and carbohydrates contain similar amounts of energy (4 kcal / g) fats nearly twice as much (9 kcal / g) ethanol inbetween (7 kcal / g) Energy Balance Positive versus negative energy imbalance Energy use BMR, approx. 1 kcal / min muscles, 20% brain and liver, 40% warmth turnover 1 Energy use digestion (5 to 10%) physical activity healing and defense Age related changes in energy use Jr BMR (mostly loss of muscle mass) l physical activity Energy Use Men Energy Use Women 2700 kcal 2000 kcal 75 and older 1600 Age related changes in energy balance trends: upto 50 yo. positive energy imbalance beyond 50 yo. negative energy imbalance energy balance maintained, lower energy intake, lower use nutrient density 2400 1800 ' Overweight and Obesity Desirable Body Weight Tables Metropolitan Life Insurance Company National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys Andres Table for older people Body Mass Index kg / In2 should be between 25 and 30 Percent Body Fat 15 to 18% for men, > 25% 20 to 25% for women, >3 0% waist to hip ratios < 0.9 men and < 0.8 women Definitions overweight — 10 to 20% above desirable obese - over 20% and BMI > 30 or % fat >25 Consequences: overweight O.K., obeseoc to longevity Prevention and Correction 1 2, Underweiht Weight below desirable body weight Consequences negative energy balance muscle weaknes, fatigue, lethargy, low body temperature, reduced resistance to infection, decreased tolerance to adversity Prevention and Correction avoid negative energy balance Carbohydrates Monosaccharides - Disaccharides — Polysaccharides - indigestable forms are called fiber insoluble - soluble — Uses: body uses sugar for energy blood sugar levels controlled by sev. hormones fiber stimulates intestinal motility decreases absorption of cholesterol Recommended Dietary intakes starch or glycogen; 50 — 100 g per day, 55 to 60% total energy fiber; 20 to 35 g per day or more carbOhydrates (continued) Carbohydrate deficiencies inadequate fiber intake may lead to Carbohydrate excesses protein-carbohydrate malnutrition (PCM) weight gain, blood glucose high fiber intake can lead to deficiencies in calcium, zinc, iron affects water homeostasis indigestible fibers result in gas production beans, peas Lipids Triglycerides three fatty acids, one glycerol . \-\ food label fat “(X f“ “x ‘ . . --""“3 as i: V \ Diglycerides flax *‘ . er Mk Monoglycerides Polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, saturated fia. Hydrogenation Essential fatty acids Cholesterol Uses: taste, absorption, bile, energ , structural, chemical Recommended Dietary Intake < 30% total energy, cholesterol < 300 mg/ clay Deficiencies (continued) Excesses indigestion, obesity, cancers, atherosclerosis Lipoproteins: LDL, VLDL, HDL saturated f.a. inhibit liver LDL uptake HDL remove cholesterol from cells HDL / LDL ratio 200' mg/ dl Proteins Uses nonprotein molecules, proteins, energy turnover in body high Essential amino acids - 9 Recommended Dietary Intake 0.8 to 1.0 g per kg body weight per day animal vs plant protein urea buildup Deficiencies structural / muscle weakness, acid/ base homeostasis, edema, bleeding Excesses stored as fat, converted to useful material, energy urea in kidney disease individuals Water Uses; Dissolves materials, Lubricates, Transports, Chemically reacts Regulates body temperature, cushion, maintains cell size, acid / base balance Located in three separate areas blood intercellular spaces intracellular spaces Recommended Dietary Intakes 2 liters per day Deficiencies age related Excesses uncommon among the elderly Vitamins I. Needed in small quantities 2. Essential 3. Diet supplements body’s production 4. Eaten regularly 5. Deficiency results in spectacular disorder Fat soluble and water soluble Sources good diet supplementation pros and cons Deficiencies and Excesses _ KENS Wm [email protected] C *S’Glf‘ Imam 00f; huh thiamine muscle weaknes, nervous sys. malfunct. Minerals Obtained in diet regularly, not made by the body Structural components of molecules Deficiencies and Excesses inadequate absorption high mineral elimination most common mineral excess is sodium promotes water retention increases blood pressure Nutrition and . . . Alcohol moderate consumption heavy consumption \L HDL levels, ‘1! intake of proper nutrients Medications use T with age alter nutritient uptake conversely, foods can interfere with medications I Disease proper diet prevents diseases and poor diets promote diseases Maximum Longevity restricted diets lead to longer lives in mice, rats human condition differs drastically 120 years? Can we increase maximum longevity in humans? ...
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111706 - Diet and Nutritin Principles Specific Nutrients...

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