Organismal Biology - Midterm 2 Version B Answers

Organismal Biology - BIO 1130MM Midterm Examination – November 2008 Multiple choice questions Place your answers on the answer sheet BIO 1130MM

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Unformatted text preview: BIO 1130MM - Midterm Examination – November 2008 Multiple choice questions - Place your answers on the answer sheet BIO 1130MM An introduction to Organismal biology Midterm examination Worth either 15% or 20% of your final grade Saturday, November 8, 2008 Part A: Multiple choice questions 26 points (1 point/question) a) Fill in the bubbles for your name and student number and BIO1130MM for the course code. Fill in the same information in text in the boxes above the bubbles. b) Use only a pencil to fill in the answer sheet. If you erase a question be sure to erase all of the pencil mark. Don’t place any marks anywhere on the sheet other than where the bubbles are for personal information or your answers. c) Do not place any answers on the question sheet. d) This is not an open book exam. e) CAUTION to minimize paper waste this part of the exam has been printed back to back NOTE: If you do not fill in the student number and course code as BIO1130MM it will be impossible to identify your answer sheet and you will receive a ZERO for this part of the exam Page 1 of 6 BIO 1130MM - Midterm Examination – November 2008 Multiple choice questions - Place your answers on the answer sheet 1. A typical ectoparasite has all of the following characteristics except: X A) lacks a digestive system. B) feeds from an organism larger than itself. C) has piercing mouthparts. D) grasps its host with its legs or mouth. E) lives outside its host. 2. Which one of the following objects most closely resembles the pattern of the tube-within-a-tube body plan? X A) a bowling ball (with finger holes drilled) B) a pipe with a straw inside C) a cup with a straw in it D) a soda can with the tab removed 3. Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder in homozygous recessives (ff) that typically causes death in the early 30s. Over time, we would expect the f allele frequency to ________ for this trait. X A) decrease B) fluctuate C) increase D) remain the same 4. What organisms are most numerous on Earth? X A) prokaryotes B) eukaryotes C) archaea D) plants E) insects 5. Which feeding tactic is most associated with a large-toothed, predatory carnivore? X A) fluid feeder B) deposit feeder C) suspension feeder D) food-mass feeder 6. For a biologist studying a small fish population in the lab, which Hardy-Weinberg condition is easiest to meet? X A) No genetic drift B) No selection C) No gene flow D) Random mating E) No mutation Page 2 of 6 BIO 1130MM - Midterm Examination – November 2008 Multiple choice questions - Place your answers on the answer sheet 7. All of the following are true about choanoflagellates except: X A) they reproduce asexually. B) they are suspension feeders. C) they are sessile as adults. D) they are animals. E) they live in aquatic habitats. 8. Why would gene duplication events, such as those seen in the homeotic Hox gene complex, set the stage for an increase in animal diversity? X A) Without duplicated genes, species would be vulnerable to extinction. B) There are more copies of genes, meaning speciation had occurred by polyploidy. C) One copy of a gene can perform the original function while other copies are available to take on new functions. D) The original gene copy is the out-group, and the new gene copies are the adaptive radiation. 9. According to the endosymbiotic theory, why was it adaptive for the larger (host) cell to keep the engulfed cell alive, rather than digesting it as food? X A) The host cell was able to survive anaerobic conditions with the engulfed cell alive. B) The engulfed cell provided the host cell with ATP. C) The engulfed cell allowed the host cell to metabolize glucose. D) The host cell would have been poisoned if it had digested the engulfed cell. E) The engulfed cell provided the host cell with carbon dioxide. 10. Multicellularity and large body size of eukaryotic organisms requires high metabolic rates and efficient ATP production by aerobic respiration. How did bacteria change Earth's atmosphere to enable aerobic respiration? X A) Anaerobic respiration by cyanobacteria increased the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere by reducing the amount of iron oxides that are able to react instantly with oxygen. B) Splitting of water during anaerobic respiration by cyanobacteria dramatically increased the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere. C) Nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria decreased the amount of nitrogen in the atmosphere, leading to simultaneous increase of oxygen. D) Oxygenic photosynthesis by cyanobacteria significantly increased the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere. 11. Phytoplankton is comprised of photosynthetic protists and bacteria. For the most part, humans do not consume phytoplankton. Why, then, are they important to humans? X A) They are not important to humans. B) They are food for many marine organisms that humans eat. C) They cause serious illness in humans. D) They release a lot of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Page 3 of 6 BIO 1130MM - Midterm Examination – November 2008 Multiple choice questions - Place your answers on the answer sheet 12. What do all sponges have in common? X A) They always reproduce sexually. B) They all practice external fertilization. C) They all live on the bottom in an aquatic environment. D) They all have three germ layers. E) All adults are free swimming. 13. Mutation is the only evolutionary mechanism that ________. X A) has no effect on genetic variation. B) always causes decreased fitness. C) does little to change allele frequencies on its own. D) is more important in eukaryotes than in prokaryotes. E) is not mentioned by the Hardy-Weinberg model. 14. Microbiologists use the Gram stain to aid in identification of bacteria. What is the major difference between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria? X A) structure of the lipids in the plasma membrane B) presence or absence of muramic acid in the cell wall C) presence or absence of peptidoglycan in the cell wall D) presence or absence of outer membrane 15. What is the major goal of cellular respiration? X A) reduce an electron acceptor molecule B) produce ATP C) supply cell with fixed carbon D) generate O2 E) All of the above answers apply. 16. Male turkeys have a snood, which is a flap of skin that hangs across their beak. Snood length is negatively correlated with parasite load (e.g., males with longer snoods have fewer parasites), and females prefer to mate with long-snooded males. This is an example of ________. X A) sexual selection via female choice. B) sexual selection via male-male competition. C) a genetic marker. D) the fundamental asymmetry of sex. 17. Why are viruses referred to as obligate parasites? X A) They cannot reproduce outside of the cell B) Viral DNA always inserts itself into host DNA C) They invariably kill any cell they infect D) They can incorporate nucleic acids from other viruses E) They must use enzymes encoded by the virus itself Page 4 of 6 BIO 1130MM - Midterm Examination – November 2008 Multiple choice questions - Place your answers on the answer sheet 18. Which of the following is characteristic of the viral lytic cycle X A) Many bacterial cells containing viral DNA are produced B) Viral DNA is incorporated into the host genome C) The viral DNA replicates without destroying the host D) A large number of viral phages is released at one time E) The virus-host relationship usually lasts for generations 19. If on average, 46% of the loci in a species’ gene pool are heterozygous, then the average homozygosity of the species is: X A) 23% B) 46% C) 54% D) 92% E) There is not enough information to complete the calculations required for the answer. 20. In modern terminology, diversity is understood to be a result of genetic variation. Sources of variation for evolution include all of the following except X A) Mistakes in translation of structural genes B) Mistakes in DNA replication C) Translocations and mistakes in meiosis D) Recombination at fertilization E) Recombination by crossing over in meiosis 21. The DNA polymerase of all cellular organisms have proofreading capability. This capability tends to reduce the introduction of X A) Extra genes by gene duplication events B) Chromosomal translocation C) Genetic variation by mutation D) Proofreading capability into prokaryotes 22. In a Hardy-Weinberg population with two alleles, A and a, that are in equilibrium, the frequency of the allele a is 0.1. What is the percentage of the population that is heterozygous for this allele? X A) 90% B) 81% C) 49% D) 18% E) 10% Page 5 of 6 BIO 1130MM - Midterm Examination – November 2008 Multiple choice questions - Place your answers on the answer sheet 23. The snowball Earth hypothesis provides a possible explanation for the X A) Diversification of animals during the late Proterozoic B) Oxygenation of the Earth’s seas and atmosphere C) Colonization of the land by plants and fungi. D) Origin of O2-releasing photosynthesis E) Existence of prokaryotes around hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor 24. Organisms showing radial symmetry would likely X A) Be good swimmers B) Have a rapid escape behaviour to avoid predators C) Move from place to place relatively slowly, if at all. D) Be able to fly E) Have fins 25. A lophophore is used by bryozoans X A) For locomotion B) In the larval stage of the life cycle C) For feeding D) For sensory perception E) As a skeletal system 26. The initial frequencies for alleles in a small population are 20 homozygous dominant (AA), 30 heterozygous (Aa) and 10 homozygous recessive (aa). If all of the recessive individuals were selected against and died, what would be the new allele frequencies and the number of homozygous individuals (AA) in the next generation? X A) The frequency of A is 0.7, the frequency of a is 0.3 and 49% are homozygous in the next generation B) The frequency of A is 0.7, the frequency of a is 0.3 and 42% are homozygous in the next generation C) The frequency of A is 0.7, the frequency of a is 0.3 and 21% are homozygous in the next generation D) The frequency of A is 0.49, the frequency of a is 0.09 and 49% are homozygous in the next generation E) The frequency of A is 0.49, the frequency of a is 0.09 and 42% are homozygous in the next generation Page 6 of 6 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/16/2011 for the course BIO 1130 taught by Professor Fenwick during the Fall '08 term at University of Ottawa.

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