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**Unformatted text preview: **MAT2378 Pawe l Lorek (based on Rafa l Kuliks slides) (Updated) version: September 15, 2009 MAT2378 Probability and Statistics for the Natural Sciences Chapter 2 Comments These slides cover material from Chapter 2, Sections 2.1-2.6. They are almost complete . For Chapter 2, the blackboard will be used rarely. Please, read these slides before coming to class. Im planning to spend 3 lectures on this material. Im not re-writing the textbook. MINITAB will be used to illustrate data analysis concepts. Tutorial will be given. 1 MAT2378 Probability and Statistics for the Natural Sciences Chapter 2 What is statistics? Statistics is the science of collecting, organising, interpreting and reporting data. Data Analysis Methods for summarizing data numerically and visually. Probability Mathematical development of statistical models. Inference Methods of drawing inferences about a population from a random sample . 2 MAT2378 Probability and Statistics for the Natural Sciences Chapter 2 Samples and Populations Variable : a particular characteristic of an object under study. Categorical variable : Blood type (A, B, AB, O); Sex (M, F); Ordinal variable : Quality of service (poor, average, good); Quantitative variable : discrete : Age of a person (in years); continuous : Weight of a person; 3 MAT2378 Probability and Statistics for the Natural Sciences Chapter 2 We will deal with random experiments (e.g. measurements of weight). In any experiment we obtain a sample (e.g. people in a particular hospital) and define the sample space as the set of all possible outcomes. This sample size is denoted by n . A sample space can be discrete or continuous . Variables will be denoted by capital letters, e.g. Y (blood type). Particular observations will be denoted by lower case letters, e.g. y = AB . 4 MAT2378 Probability and Statistics for the Natural Sciences Chapter 2 Frequency distributions - discrete data The data in file litters.mtp describe the number of piglets surviving 21 days of age for each of 36 sows....

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