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bus.dec.lec.19 - Context Roles and Attribution Business...

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1 Context, Roles, and Attribution Business Decisions SOC 138/ECO 149
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2 I LOVE PARIS IN THE THE SPRINGTIME
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3 Expectancy and Selective Perception Like memory, perception is a constructive process Sensory inputs are heavily modified to clean up noise, “patch” inconsistencies, etc. Modifications are in the direction of familiar and expected patterns – to an extent, we really do see what we expect to see Expectations often affected by context We expect consonance between elements of our environment We automatically use some features of our environment to infer others In some cases, of course, these contextual cues may be very misleading….
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4 Examples: Complaints and Rivalries Sports rivalries Hastorf and Cantril: perceptions of foul play in Dartmouth/Princeton game correlated with own affiliation Media bias Vallone et al.: of those perceiving bias in 1980 presidential election coverage, apx 90% saw bias as being against their favored candidate International disputes Vallone et al.: perceptions of bias in coverage of Beirut massacre correlated with own position; references to Israel seen as generally unfavorable by pro-Israeli students, favorable by pro-Arab students Important implication: if you want good product reviews, make sure customers are with you, rather than against you
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5 Demand Effects When given a specific task to perform, our inferences about the purpose of the task can act as expectations – this generates a demand effect Not always unconscious; subjects sometimes actively assess demands Exacerbating factors Ambiguous stimuli Tasks which cannot be completed as requested Strong “hints” as to the purpose of the task or intent of the task designer
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6 Example: Plasticity Order effects Primacy The first of a series of related questions can serve as an anchor for subsequent responses (e.g., American reporters in Russia vs. Russian reporters in America) Recency
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