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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 17 Valuation and Capital Budgeting for the Levered Firm 17A-1 The Adjusted Present Value Approach to Valuing Leveraged Buyouts 1 Introduction A leveraged buyout (LBO) is the acquisition by a small group of equity investors of a public or private company fi nanced primarily with debt. The equityholders service the heavy inter- est and principal payments with cash from operations and/or asset sales. The shareholders generally hope to reverse the LBO within three to seven years by way of a public offering or sale of the company to another fi rm. A buyout is therefore likely to be successful only if the fi rm generates enough cash to serve the debt in the early years, and if the company is attractive to other buyers as the buyout matures. In a leveraged buyout, the equity investors are expected to pay off outstanding principal according to a specifi c timetable. The owners know that the fi rm’s debt–equity ratio will fall and can forecast the dollar amount of debt needed to fi nance future operations. Under these circumstances, the adjusted present value (APV) approach is more practical than the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) approach because the capital structure is chang- ing. In this appendix, we illustrate the use of this procedure in valuing the RJR Nabisco transaction, the largest LBO in history. The RJR Nabisco Buyout In the summer of 1988, the price of RJR stock was hovering around $55 a share. The fi rm had $5 billion of debt. The fi rm’s CEO, acting in concert with some other senior managers of the fi rm, announced a bid of $75 per share to take the fi rm private in a management buyout. Within days of management’s offer, Kohlberg, Kravis, and Roberts (KKR) entered the fray with a $90 bid of their own. By the end of November, KKR emerged from the ensuing bidding process with an offer of $109 a share, or $25 billion total. We now use the APV technique to analyze KKR’s winning strategy. The APV method as described in this chapter can be used to value companies as well as projects. Applied in this way, the maximum value of a levered fi rm ( V L ) is its value as an all-equity entity ( V U ) plus the discounted value of the interest tax shields from the debt its assets will support (PVTS). 2 This relation can be stated as: V L 5 V U 1 PVTS 5 t = ∞ ∑ 1 UCF t ________ (1 1 R ) t 1 t = ∞ ∑ 1 t C R B B t 2 1 _________ (1 1 R B ) t In the second part of this equation, UCF t is the unlevered cash fl ow from operations for year t. Discounting these cash fl ows by the required return on assets, R , yields the all- equity value of the company. B t 2 1 represents the debt balance remaining at the end of year ( t 2 1). Because interest in a given year is based on the debt balance remaining at the end of the previous year, the interest paid in year t is R B B t 2 1 . The numerator of the second term, Appendix 17A . h h e . c o / r j 1 This appendix has been adapted by Isik Inselbag and Howard Kaufold, The Wharton School, University of...
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This note was uploaded on 01/17/2011 for the course ACTSC 372 taught by Professor Maryhardy during the Spring '09 term at Waterloo.
- Spring '09