ME 211-01-3 - Materials Science (ME-211) Ik University...

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Materials Science (ME-211) I ş ı k University Mechanical Engineering Department Fall-2010
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Classification of metal and alloys Metals Ferrous Non ferrous Steels Cast irons Low alloy Low carbon Medium carbon High carbon Plain carbon Low alloy high strength Plain carbon Heat treatable Plain carbon Tool steels Stainless steel High alloy Gray cast iron Ductile iron White iron Malleable cast iron
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Low carbon steels (up to 0.25% C) • Relatively soft but outstanding ductility and toughness, easily machinable, weldable, least expensive • Automoble body componets, structural shapes (I-beams), pipelines, buildings, brdidges etc.)
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Low carbon steels (up to 0.25% C)
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Medium carbon steels (0.25%-0.6 % C) • Heat treatable • Mostly used after quenching and tempering (temepered martensite • Railway wheels, gears, crankshafts, machine parts
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High carbon steels (0.6%-1.4 % C) • Hardest, strongest and least ductile (brittle) steels • Almost always used in quenched and tempered condition) • Tool and die steels are high carbon steels • Usually contains other alloying elements such as Cr, V, W, Mo. • These alloying elements form carbides with carbon such as Cr 23 C 6 , V 4 C 3 , WC. • These carbides give very high hardness to steel.
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Tool steels • Used for forming and shaping other materials such as drills, cutting tools, punches etc.
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Stainless steels • Major alloying elements chromium. They contain at least ~11% Cr. They have high corrosion resistance due to the stable oxide film on the surface (Cr 2 O 3 ) • Corrosion resistance varies depending on the type of the steel. • There are 5 main types. – Ferritic – Austenitic, – Martensitic – Duplex (Ferritic-austenitic) – Precipitation hardened
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Cast Irons Ductile iron (Spheroidal graphite cast iron) Gray cast iron (Flake graphite cast iron) Malleable cast iron White cast iron
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Nonferrous alloys • Aluminium alloys • Copper alloys • Titanium alloys • Magnesium alloys
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Aluminium alloys • Density: 2.7 g/cm 3 • Mostly used in aircrafts • Modulus of elasticity 70 GPa • Higher Specific modulus (Strength / Density) • High electrical and thermal conductivity • No ductile brittle transition (Ductile at low temperatures) • Resistant to corrosion • Less hard and less strength when compared to steel
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Wrought Cast Heat Treatable 2xxx 6xxx 7xxx 1xxx 3xxx 5xxx 2xx.x 3xx.x 7xx.x 1xx.x 4xx.x 5xx.x IADS IADS Main Main Alloying Alloying Elements Elements Class Class Cu, (Mg) Mg, Si Zn, Mg, (Cu) “Pure” Al Mn, (Mg) Mg Cu Si, Cu/Mg Zn, (Mg) “Pure” Al Si Mg Heat Treatable Non Heat Treatable Non heat treatable Classification of Aluminum Alloys
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Aluminium alloys
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Copper alloys • Density: 8.9 g/cm 3 • Perfect electrical and thermal conductivity • Formable • High corrosion resistance • Can be alloyed with other elements • Brass (Cu-Zn) • Bronze (Cu-Sn, Cu-Al, Cu-Be)
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Copper alloys
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Titanium alloys • Density ~4.5 g/cm 3 • Corrosion resistant • Biocompatible. Used as biomaterials in human body • Pure Ti (Commercial purity: Cp-Ti): dental implants • Ti6Al4V alloy (90%Ti, 6%Al, 4%V) • Ti6Al7Nb alloy (87%Ti, 6%Al, 7%V)
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Titanium alloys
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• Density: 1.74 g/cm
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This note was uploaded on 01/17/2011 for the course ME 211 taught by Professor Dr.k during the Spring '10 term at Middle East Technical University.

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ME 211-01-3 - Materials Science (ME-211) Ik University...

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