L3%20Fab1 - Fabrication Technology Part I Agenda $ $ $ $ $...

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1 Lecture 3 Fab 1 EEL 5225, Fall 2010, David Arnold Fabrication Technology, Part I ! Senturia, Ch. 3, pp. 29-47, 50-77; Ch. 4 pp. 79-98 " HW2 # Agenda $ Microfabrication – Overview $ Layer Deposition $ Lithography $ Pattern Transfer (etching) $ Impurity Doping $ Heat Treatment $ Example process flows
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2 Lecture 3 Fab 1 EEL 5225, Fall 2010, David Arnold Basic Semiconductor Devices % P/N diode % Bipolar junction transistor (BJT) % N/P/N % P/N/P % Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) % n-channel (NMOS) % p-channel (PMOS) % complementary MOS (CMOS) Idealized pictures P N P N N P N N Metal (Al) Poly Si SiO 2
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3 Lecture 3 Fab 1 EEL 5225, Fall 2010, David Arnold % Diode P N Metal (Al) N P+ Planar Process N+ Basic Semiconductor Devices % CMOS Johns and Martin, Analog Integrated Circuit Design
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4 Lecture 3 Fab 1 EEL 5225, Fall 2010, David Arnold Materials Classification % By Class: % Metals Cu, Al, Ta, alloys % Ceramics oxides, nitrides, carbides, glass % Polymers photoresist, plastics, liquid crystals % Semiconductors Si, Ge, GaAs, InSb % Composites particulate composites, laminates, etc. % By Property: % Mechanical modulus, ductile, brittle, fatigue, … % Electrical conductors, dielectrics, semiconductor… % Magnetic ferromag., paramag., magnetostrictive… % Optical refractive index, absorption… % Chemical oxidation states,
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5 Lecture 3 Fab 1 EEL 5225, Fall 2010, David Arnold Crystallinity Amorphous Polycrystalline Domains Domain walls Crystalline
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6 Lecture 3 Fab 1 EEL 5225, Fall 2010, David Arnold Amorphous SiO 2 Dielectric Crystalline Si Channel Poly-Crystalline Si Gate Electrode Crystallinity Ref: Jaeger, Intro to Microelectronic Fabrication , p.39. High-resolution transmission electron microscope image % MOS Gate
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7 Lecture 3 Fab 1 EEL 5225, Fall 2010, David Arnold Crystallography Diamond structure Group IV Materials (Si) Ref: S. A. Campbell, The Science and Engineering of Microelectronic Fabrication , 2001, pp. 15, 16. Lattice Unit Cell
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8 Lecture 3 Fab 1 EEL 5225, Fall 2010, David Arnold Miller Indices Notation for Miller indices (ijk): a specific crystal plane or face {ijk}: a family of equivalent planes [ijk]: a specific direction which is normal to the (ijk) plane <ijk>: a family of equivalent directions To find the miller index of a plane: Step 1: Find points where plane crosses x,y,z coordinate axes Step 2: Take inverse Step 3: Multiply by smallest factor to make indexes integers Ref: Senturia, Microsystem Design, pg. 31
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9 Lecture 3 Fab 1 EEL 5225, Fall 2010, David Arnold Substrate Materials: Silicon % Defined by plane crystal orientation and wafer flat direction (100) p-type (111) p-type (111) n-type (100) n-type Primary (largest) flat is always perpendicular to <110> direction <110> <110> <110> <110>
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10 Lecture 3 Fab 1 EEL 5225, Fall 2010, David Arnold Substrate Materials III IV V VI VII % Group IV Elemental Semiconductors % e.g. Si % 4 valence electrons % Tetrahedral covalent bonding % Silicon bonded to 4 nearest neighbors % Diamond crystal lattice % 2 (Si) FCC lattices that are offset by a/4, a/4, a/4 % Group III-V Compound Semiconductors % e.g. GaAs, InSb % Ga bonded to 4 nearest neighbor As % Zinc blende lattice % 1 FCC consists of Ga % 1 FCC consists of As
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11 Lecture 3 Fab 1 EEL 5225, Fall 2010, David Arnold Semiconductor Structure % Visualization % http://cst-www.nrl.navy.mil/lattice/struk/a4.html
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