L7%20Transducers - Transducers Agenda $ Linear...

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1 Lecture 7 Transducers EEL 5225, Fall 2010, David Arnold Transducers ! Senturia, Ch. 6, Appendix B, “General Two-Port Theory” " HW7 # Agenda $ Linear, Energy-Conserving Transducers $ Ex: Electrodynamic Transduction $ General Transducer Theory $ Ex: Piezoelectric Transduction $ Ex: Electrostatic Transduction $ Non-Energy Conserving Transducers
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2 Lecture 7 Transducers EEL 5225, Fall 2010, David Arnold % Definition : A transducer is a device that converts one form of energy to another. % Broad Classification : Energy-Conserving: EQS, Magnetic, etc. Non-energy Conserving: Thermal, piezoresistive, etc. % Specific Classification : Linear versus nonlinear Reciprocal versus anti-reciprocal Direct versus indirect Transducers
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3 Lecture 7 Transducers EEL 5225, Fall 2010, David Arnold % Linear, energy-conserving, transducers : Energy-conserving : % No dissipative losses in the transduction mechanism Linear : % Linearization about a mean may be required % Necessary for hi-fidelity transduction of time-resolved info Linear, Conservative Transducers
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4 Lecture 7 Transducers EEL 5225, Fall 2010, David Arnold % General Two-Port Theory for L.C. Transducers : In general, L.C.T.’s can be described by simple two-port networks expressed in either the impedance form or the admittance form % Z-representation : Reciprocal: Direct: Linear, Conservative Transducers Electro- mechanical Transducer + ± i u V _ + F
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5 Lecture 7 Transducers EEL 5225, Fall 2010, David Arnold There are five major electromechanical transducers: 1. Electrostatic : motor/generator action are produced by variations of the mechanical stress by maintaining a potential difference between two or more electrodes, one of which moves (i.e., condensor microphone, etc.). 2. Piezoelectric : motor/generator action are produced by the direct and converse piezoelectric effect - dielectric polarization gives rise to elastic strain and vice versa (i.e., tweeters, etc.). 3. Electrodynamic : motor/generator action are produced by the current in, or the motion of an electric conductor located in a fixed transverse magnetic field (i.e., voice coil, solenoid, etc.). 4. Magnetic : motor/generator action are produced by variations of the tractive force tending to close the air gap in a ferromagnetic circuit. 5. Magnetostrictive : motor/generator action are produced by the direct and converse magnetostriction effect - magnetic polarization gives rise to elastic strain and vice versa. Linear, Conservative Transducers
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6 Lecture 7 Transducers EEL 5225, Fall 2010, David Arnold % Electrodynamic : % motor/generator action are produced by the current in, or the motion of an electric conductor located in a fixed transverse magnetic field (i.e., voice coil, solenoid, etc.). Ref., Beraneck, “Acoustics”, pg71. Electrodynamic Transduction N S 1 2 V + ± F i = conductor element d ! F mag = id !
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