Understanding Movies - Styles of Film All movie directors...

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Styles of Film All movie directors go to the photographable world for their subject matter; what they do with material & how its manipulated determines their stylistic emphasis 1. Realism – “the art that conceals art” a. Established mid-1890s in France w/ Lumiere bros b. Captures flux & spontaneity of events as they are viewed in real life; everyday occurrences c. Reproduces the surface of reality with a minimum of distortion d. Premium is placed on simplicity, spontaneity & directness without lacking artistry e. Major concern is content 2. Classicism – the classical paradigm a. Avoids the extremes but still leans towards one or the other b. Story oriented, high premium is placed on the entertainment value c. Roles of characters [actors] are tailored to showcase their personal charms 3. Formalism – a subjective experience of reality a. Established by Melies b. Deliberately stylize & distorts raw materials so no one would mistake a manipulated image for the real thing c. Expressionists – self expression is as important as the subject matter, often concerned with spiritual and psychological truths d. Emphasizes technique & expressiveness Types of Cinema 1. Documentaries [realism] 2. Fiction films [classicism] 3. Avant-garde movies [formalism] Form – the way in which a subject is photographed Content – communicating information Lyricism – a stylistic externalization of the scene’s emotional content Types of Shots Frame – the boundary of the screen 1. Extreme long shot – “establishing shot” taken from a great distance, shows most of the locale, people are specs on the screen 2. Long shot/deep-focus shot – correspondence to the distance between the audience and the stage in live theater a. Emcompasses same amt of space as the staging area of a theater b. DF shot – consists of a number of focal distances photographed in depth, uses a wide-angle lens. 3. Full shot – just barely includes the human body in full 4. Medium shot – a figure from the knee or waist up, for dialogue a. Two shot- 2 ppl b. Three-shot – three ppl, >3 = full shot c. Over the shoulder shot – two ppl, one with his back to the camera 5. Close-up – concentrates on a relatively small object, elevates importance of object, suggesting a symbolic significance 6. Extreme closeup – eyes, mouth Angles of shots 1. Birds-eye view – most subject matter seems unrecognizable & abstract because we seldom view events from directly overhead 2. The high angle – implies fatality, shows the floor a. Usually filmed with a crane b. Reduces importance of subject 3. The eye-level shot a. Realists – photograph from eye level, about 5-6 feet off ground 4. The low angle – shows the sky or ceiling
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a. Increases height to suggest verticality b. Heighten importance of subject 5. The oblique angle – a lateral tilt of the camera, usually used in scenes of violence Lightness/Darkness Cinematographer – the director of photography, arranges and controls lighting of a film & the quality of the photography
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