Chapter 11 - Chapter 11 I Psychoanalytic Theories a...

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Chapter 11 I. Psychoanalytic Theories a. Personality: characteristics of behaving, thinking, and feeling b. Psychoanalysis: Freud’s theory of personality and his therapy for treating psychological disorders; focuses on unconscious processes i. Unconscious forces shape human thought and behavior c. Levels of Consciousness i. 3 levels according to Freud 1. Conscious: The thoughts, feelings, sensations, or memories of which a person is aware at any given moment. 2. Preconscious: The thoughts, feelings & memories that a person is not consciously aware of at the moment but that may be easily brought to consciousness. 3. Unconscious: For Freud, the primary motivating force of human behavior, containing repressed memories as well as instincts, wishes, desires that have never been conscious. d. Structure of Personality i. Freud proposed 3 systems of personality 1. Id: The unconscious system of the personality which contains the life & death instincts & operates on the pleasure principle and also the source of the libido a. Libido: the Psychic energy that fuels the entire personality. 2. Ego: In Freud’s theory, the logical, rational, largely conscious system of the personality, which operates according to the reality principle. a. Reality Principle: Considers the restraints of the real world in determining appropriate times, places and objects for gratification of the id’s wishes. 3. Superego: The moral system of the personality which consists of the conscience and ego ideal a. Conscience consists of all the behaviors for which the child has been punished and which he/she feels guilty.
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b. Ego Ideal comprises the behaviors for which the child has been praised and rewarded. e. Defense Mechanism i. Defense Mechanism: A means used by the ego to defend against anxiety & to maintain self-esteem. 1. Repression (most used): Involuntarily removing unpleasant memory, thought, or perception. 2. Projection: Seeing own undesirable trait in others. 3. Denial: refusing to acknowledge 4. Rationalization: Manufacture a socially acceptable reason for unacceptable behavior 5. Regression: Revert to a less stressful time. 6. Reaction Formation: React opposite way 7. Displacement: Displace bad feelings to something safer i.e.: slamming door 8. Sublimation: Channel into something more acceptable.
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