Chapter 1

# Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 Introduction Statistics is the...

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Chapter 1 Introduction Statistics is the science of collecting, describing, and interpreting data. Population: A collection, or set, of individuals or objects or events whose properties are to be analyzed. Notes: Ex: Sample : A subset of the population Notes: Ex: Statistical methods allow us to assess the degree of uncertainty on our results. Chapter 1 Page 1

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Three Areas of Statistical Methods: 1) Descriptive Statistics: utilizes numerical and graphical methods to look for patterns, to summarize, and to present the information in sample data 2) Inferential Statistics: utilizes sample data to make estimates, decisions, predictions, or other generalizations about a population. 3) Model Building: the development of prediction equations from experimental data The mathematics on which statistical methods rest is called  probability theory . Section 1.1 Interpreting Probability All probabilities are between 0 and 1. Probabilities near 0 indicate the event is rare. Probabilities near 1 indicate that the event is common. Probabilities near ½ indicate the probability is just as likely to occur as not. Chapter 1 Page 2
Methods of Assigning Probability: 1) Relative Frequency Approach: Probability is based on observed results. Number of times the event occurred f P(A) = ------------------------------------------------------- = --- Total number of observations N Why are we able to use past data? The Law of Large Numbers tells us that the larger the number of experimental trials, the closer the empirical probability is expected to be to the true probability. Example 1: A sample of 1600 people in Blacksburg showed 1200

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## This note was uploaded on 01/17/2011 for the course STAT 4714 at Virginia Tech.

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Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 Introduction Statistics is the...

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