Biol110-10-Lecture 6-Nucleoplasm

Biol110-10-Lecture 6-Nucleoplasm - The cell nucleus Two...

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The cell nucleus- Two bilayers Held in place by a scaffold Perforated by nuclear pores • The nucleus protects the cell’s DNA and allows sophisticated gene regulation •It also uncouples transcription from translation Transmission electron micrograph No assigned reading for next class
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There are many nuclear subcompartments- General features: •not membrane enclosed •each is marked by its specific content of proteins, and some have unknown functions •very dynamic aggregates that constantly capture and release their specific components •purpose: to increase efficiency of nuclear processes by concentrating specific enzymatic activities Store RNA splicing factors Scaffold for the NE and heterochromatin Biomarker for breast cancer Promyelocitic leukemia
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The nucleolus is the ribosome factory of the cell- The most prominent structure in the nucleoplasm under the microscope Nucleolar targeting signals direct proteins to the nucleolus Nucleolus (usually 2-3 per nucleus) Nucleus Nucleoli are dynamic Nucleolus substructure
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Cajal bodies are highly dynamic structures of 0.2 - 1.0 µ M in diameter. The average nucleus contains 1-10 of these bodies. Cajal bodies are involved in snRNP biogenesis and in the trafficking of snoRNPs and snRNPs, which appear to move through the Cajal body en route to nucleoli or splicing speckles (respectively). Cajal bodies- Fibrillarin in Nucleoli and CBs Chromatin Inter-chromatin granules- All four combined CBs first observed by Ramon y Cajal in 1903 Gems
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Scanning electron micrograph of freeze fractured cell transmission electron micrograph Origins of the nuclear envelope-
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It is made of intermediate filament proteins, lamin A/C and B , which together form the meshwork shown right underneath the membrane.
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