Biol110-10-Lecture 13-Cytoskeleton

Biol110-10-Lecture 13-Cytoskeleton - The cell skeleton-...

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The cell skeleton- Three major types of protein filaments form the cytoskeleton of cells: • Actin filaments • Microtubules • Intermediate filaments Fixed cell. Microtubules in green; actin in red; DNA in blue Inactive platelet Activated (spread) Activated (contract) Rapid changes in cell morphology associated with a dynamic cytoskeleton (e.g. wound healing) General purpose: self organization and mechanical interaction with environment During interphase it is needed for: Cell shape Crawling, swimming Cell division Organelle positioning Vesicular traffic Muscle contraction Cell rigidity During mitosis it is needed for: chromosome separation and cell division Reading for next class Alberts et al Chapter 16 pgs. 1010-1042
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Organization of the cytoskeleton in cells, and its dynamic reorganization- Cytoskeleton rearranges as a neutrophil chases a bacteria Polarity of actin cables and patches in budding yeast (labeled with phalloidin) Cytoskeleton changes in cell division In polarized epithelial cells
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Lamellipodia & filapodia for crawling Contractile ring for cell division (not shown) Actin filaments- Determine cell shape, the ability to crawl & cell division microvilli Muscle Cell cortex Actin monomer structure with ATP, and filament morphology
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Microtubules- Determine organelle position and direct vesicular traffic Structure of the tubulin heterodimer with GTP Thirteen protofilaments make a microtubule Flagella & cilia mitotic spindle or axonal transport Vesicle transport Microtubule dynamics
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Intermediate filaments- Provide mechanical strength & resistance to shear stress Subunit structure of Intermediate filaments (rope-like: resistant to bending and stretching) Nuclear lamina
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General properties of cytoskeletal elements- Rapid changes in cell shape are possible via regulated assembly and disassembly of cytoskeleton- this is aided by accessory proteins that coordinate the process, rapid diffusion of monomeric subunits, and non-covalent interactions Monomers held together by weak non-covalent bonds Polymerization as proto-filaments affords thermal stability
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Biol110-10-Lecture 13-Cytoskeleton - The cell skeleton-...

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