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LS2 Lec 2 Cell (4 Slides)

LS2 Lec 2 Cell (4 Slides) - What Are Cells Made of Life...

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1 Life Sciences 2 Cells: The Working Units of Life Chapter 5 Dr. Joseph Esdin What Are Cells Made of? The Basic Unit of Life Life requires a structural compartment separate from the external environment in which macromolecules can perform unique functions in a relatively constant internal environment These “living compartments” are cells Robert Hooke Hooke’s Law: F = -Kx Most famous for his study of thin slice of cork under the microscope
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2 Robert Hooke • Celluae The term “cells” Antoni van Leewenhoek Known as the father of microbiology Improved the microscope First to report single celled organisms • Animalcules Cell Theory Matthias Schleiden observed plant cell and made the first statement of the cell theory Theodor Shwann reported the same in animal cells Cell Theory All organisms are composed of cells Cells are the fundamental units of life All cells come from preexisting cells
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3 Multicellular Organisms Division of labor Cells Must stick together Cells must communicate with each other Cell Size • Resolution Unaided eye: Light Microscopy Electron Microscopy What Limits Cell Size? Surface area 4 ! r 2 Surface area- to-volume ratio Volume 4/3 ! r 3 1 μ m 2 μ m 4 μ m 3.14 μ m 2 6:1 3:1 2:1 12.56 μ m 2 28.26 μ m 2 Spheres 0.52 μ m 3 4.19 μ m 3 14.18 μ m 3 What Limits Cell Size?
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4 Eukaryotes • Membrane-Nucleus • Membrane-organelles • Unicellular/Multicellular • Larger Prokaryotes • Prokaryotes No nucleus No membrane- organelles • Unicellular • Smaller What Functions Are Required to Ensure Cells Survival? • Obtain energy Express genetic material (proteins synthesis) Process biochemical reactions Eliminate waste products Nucleus Rough endoplasmic reticulum Microfilament Lysosome Mitochondrion Centriole Microtubule Ribosomes Exocytotic vesicle Golgi complex Cytosol Endocytotic vesicle Smooth endoplasmic Reticulum Plasma membrane Eukaryotic Cells
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5 Lipid bilayer Intracellular fluid Extracellular fluid Plasma Membrane • Continuous
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