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m1review - Physics 6A Midterm 1 Review Fall 2010...

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Unformatted text preview: Physics 6A Midterm 1 Review Fall 2010 Instructor: Anthony Karmis Tuesday, October 12, 2010 How To Succeed In Physics Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Units When we use a number to describe a physical quantity, we must specify the unit we are using The standard system used is Système International (or SI) Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Types of Units TIME - Measured in seconds (s) Defined as the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium 133 atom. Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Types of Units LENGTH - Measured in meters (m) Defined as the distance travelled by light in vacuum in one 299,792,458th of a second. * The speed of light in vacuum is 299,792,548 m/s Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Types of Units MASS - Measured in kilograms (kg) Defined in terms of the International Prototype Kilogram Tuesday, October 12, 2010 NOTE!!! Mass ≠ Weight Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Prefixes & Powers of 10 Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Vectors A scalar is a quantity that has a magnitude e.g. 12 kg, or 13.2 s A vector is a quantity that has a magnitude and a direction. Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Vectors Vectors = Arrows Direction arrow points tells you direction Length of arrow tells you magnitude Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Vector Components Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Vector Components & Adding Vectors In order to add two vectors: Break up the vector into components Add each of the components individually Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Kinematics Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Displacement The length of a vector pointing from the start of a path to the end of a path. NOT the same as distance travelled! Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Velocity The rate of change of displacement over time. Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Velocity Defined As: Displacement / Time Velocity is a vector quantity Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Velocity vs. Speed Velocity ≠ Speed Velocity: Vector - Displacement / Time Speed: Scalar - Distance / Time Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Average Velocity vav,x x2 − x1 ∆x = = t 2 − t1 ∆t Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Instantaneous Velocity ∆x vx = lim ∆t→0 ∆t Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Acceleration The rate of change of velocity over time. Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Acceleration Defined similarly to velocity aav,x v2,x − v1,x ∆vx = = t2 − t1 ∆t ∆vx ax = lim ∆t→0 ∆t Tuesday, October 12, 2010 A Note On Velocity/Acceleration Velocity Slope of Displace vs. Time Acceleration Slope of Velocity vs. Time Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Motion With Constant Acceleration For Constant Acceleration: Average Acceleration = Instantaneous Acceleration v2x − v1x ax = t 2 − t1 Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Kinematic Equations of Motion 1 2 x = x0 + v0x t + ax t (Gives x if t is known) 2 vx = v0x + ax t (Gives vx if t is known) 2 vx = 2 v0x (Gives vx if x is known) + 2a(x − x0 ) * For Constant Acceleration Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Freely Falling Objects Gravity is an attractive force between any two objects that have mass. Close to astronomical objects, the gravitational field looks uniform. Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Gravity Nearer To Earth Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Free Fall Acceleration Acceleration due to gravity on: The Earth - 9.80 m/s2 Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Relative Velocity Your velocity depends on your frame of reference! v(W/C ) = v(W/T ) + v(T /C ) Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Motion In A Plane (Motion In More Than One Dimension) Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Velocity & Acceleration ￿av v ￿2 − ￿1 r r ∆￿ r = = t 2 − t1 ∆t ∆￿ r ￿ = lim v ∆t→0 ∆t ￿ av a ￿2 − ￿1 v v ∆￿ v = = t 2 − t1 ∆t ∆￿ v ￿ = lim a ∆t→0 ∆t Tuesday, October 12, 2010 A Note On Acceleration Acceleration measures the rate of change of velocity Velocity is a vector - it has a direction and a magnitude Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Motion In More Than One Dimension Kinematic Equations hold for each direction! Take care with the acceleration! 1 x = x0 + v0x t + ax t2 2 vx = v0x + ax t 2 2 vx = v0x + 2ax (x − x0 ) 12 y = y0 + v0y t + ay t 2 vy = v0y + ay t 2 2 vy = v0y + 2ay (y − y0 ) 12 z = z0 + v0z t + az t 2 vz = v0z + az t 2 2 vz = v0z + 2az (z − z0 ) Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Motion In A Plane Key Idea: Motion in one direction is INDEPENDENT of motion in other directions Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Projectile Motion Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Projectile Motion ax = 0 ay = -g Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Equations of Motion for Projectile Motion x = x0 + v0x t vx = v0x 12 y = y0 + v0y t − gt 2 vy = v0y − gt Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Equations of Motion for Projectile Motion Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Equations of Motion for Projectile Motion x = v0 cos(θ0 )t vx = v0 cos(θ0 ) 12 y = v0 sin(θ0 )t − gt 2 vy = v0 sin(θ0 ) − gt * With x0 = y0 = 0 Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Range and Maximum Height 2 v0 sin(2θ0 ) R= g h= 2 v0 sin (θ0 ) 2g 2 * See Textbook, Example 3.5, Page 81 Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Effects of Air Resistance Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Uniform Circular Motion Recall: Velocity is a vector If we change its direction, we must have an acceleration! Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Uniform Circular Motion 2 arad v = R * Sometimes called centripetal acceleration Tuesday, October 12, 2010 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/17/2011 for the course PHYS 6a taught by Professor Stanek during the Fall '07 term at UCSB.

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m1review - Physics 6A Midterm 1 Review Fall 2010...

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