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Unformatted text preview: Physics 6A Midterm 1 Review Fall 2010
Instructor: Anthony Karmis Tuesday, October 12, 2010 How To Succeed In Physics Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Units
When we use a number to describe a physical quantity, we must specify the unit we are using The standard system used is Système International (or SI) Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Types of Units
TIME  Measured in seconds (s)
Defined as the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium 133 atom. Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Types of Units
LENGTH  Measured in meters (m)
Defined as the distance travelled by light in vacuum in one 299,792,458th of a second. * The speed of light in vacuum is 299,792,548 m/s
Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Types of Units
MASS  Measured in kilograms (kg)
Defined in terms of the International Prototype Kilogram Tuesday, October 12, 2010 NOTE!!! Mass ≠ Weight Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Prefixes & Powers of 10 Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Vectors
A scalar is a quantity that has a magnitude e.g. 12 kg, or 13.2 s A vector is a quantity that has a magnitude and a direction. Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Vectors
Vectors = Arrows Direction arrow points tells you direction Length of arrow tells you magnitude Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Vector Components Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Vector Components & Adding Vectors
In order to add two vectors: Break up the vector into components Add each of the components individually Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Kinematics Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Displacement The length of a vector pointing from the start of a path to the end of a path. NOT the same as distance travelled!
Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Velocity The rate of change of displacement over time. Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Velocity Defined As: Displacement / Time Velocity is a vector quantity Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Velocity vs. Speed
Velocity ≠ Speed Velocity: Vector  Displacement / Time Speed: Scalar  Distance / Time Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Average Velocity
vav,x x2 − x1 ∆x = = t 2 − t1 ∆t Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Instantaneous Velocity
∆x vx = lim ∆t→0 ∆t Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Acceleration The rate of change of velocity over time. Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Acceleration
Defined similarly to velocity aav,x v2,x − v1,x ∆vx = = t2 − t1 ∆t ∆vx ax = lim ∆t→0 ∆t
Tuesday, October 12, 2010 A Note On Velocity/Acceleration
Velocity
Slope of Displace vs. Time Acceleration
Slope of Velocity vs. Time Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Motion With Constant Acceleration
For Constant Acceleration:
Average Acceleration = Instantaneous Acceleration v2x − v1x ax = t 2 − t1 Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Kinematic Equations of Motion
1 2 x = x0 + v0x t + ax t (Gives x if t is known) 2 vx = v0x + ax t
(Gives vx if t is known) 2 vx = 2 v0x (Gives vx if x is known) + 2a(x − x0 ) * For Constant Acceleration
Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Freely Falling Objects
Gravity is an attractive force between any two objects that have mass. Close to astronomical objects, the gravitational ﬁeld looks uniform. Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Gravity Nearer To Earth Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Free Fall Acceleration
Acceleration due to gravity on: The Earth  9.80 m/s2 Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Relative Velocity
Your velocity depends on your frame of reference! v(W/C ) = v(W/T ) + v(T /C ) Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Motion In A Plane
(Motion In More Than One Dimension) Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Velocity & Acceleration
av v 2 − 1 r r ∆ r = = t 2 − t1 ∆t ∆ r = lim v ∆t→0 ∆t av a 2 − 1 v v ∆ v = = t 2 − t1 ∆t ∆ v = lim a ∆t→0 ∆t Tuesday, October 12, 2010 A Note On Acceleration
Acceleration measures the rate of change of velocity Velocity is a vector  it has a direction and a magnitude Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Motion In More Than One Dimension
Kinematic Equations hold for each direction! Take care with the acceleration! 1 x = x0 + v0x t + ax t2 2 vx = v0x + ax t 2 2 vx = v0x + 2ax (x − x0 ) 12 y = y0 + v0y t + ay t 2 vy = v0y + ay t 2 2 vy = v0y + 2ay (y − y0 ) 12 z = z0 + v0z t + az t 2 vz = v0z + az t 2 2 vz = v0z + 2az (z − z0 ) Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Motion In A Plane Key Idea: Motion in one direction is INDEPENDENT of motion in other directions Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Projectile Motion Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Projectile Motion ax = 0 ay = g Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Equations of Motion for Projectile Motion
x = x0 + v0x t vx = v0x 12 y = y0 + v0y t − gt 2 vy = v0y − gt Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Equations of Motion for Projectile Motion Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Equations of Motion for Projectile Motion
x = v0 cos(θ0 )t vx = v0 cos(θ0 ) 12 y = v0 sin(θ0 )t − gt 2 vy = v0 sin(θ0 ) − gt * With x0 = y0 = 0
Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Range and Maximum Height
2 v0 sin(2θ0 ) R= g h= 2 v0 sin (θ0 ) 2g
2 * See Textbook, Example 3.5, Page 81
Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Effects of Air Resistance Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Uniform Circular Motion
Recall: Velocity is a vector If we change its direction, we must have an acceleration! Tuesday, October 12, 2010 Uniform Circular Motion
2 arad v = R * Sometimes called centripetal acceleration Tuesday, October 12, 2010 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/17/2011 for the course PHYS 6a taught by Professor Stanek during the Fall '07 term at UCSB.
 Fall '07
 STANEK
 Physics

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