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Leacture CH4 - Guide to Networking Essentials Fifth Edition...

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Guide to Networking Essentials Fifth Edition Chapter 4 Network Interface Cards
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Guide to Networking Essentials, Fifth Edition 2 Objectives Describe a network interface card’s function and configurable options List important factors for selecting network adapters Describe types of special-purpose network interface cards Explain the role of driver software in network adapters
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Guide to Networking Essentials, Fifth Edition 3 Network Interface Cards (NIC) Basics For any computer, a network interface card (NIC) performs two crucial tasks Establishes and manages the computer’s network connection Translates digital computer data into signals (appropriate for the networking medium) for outgoing messages, and translates signals into digital computer data for incoming messages NIC establishes a link between a computer and a network, and then manages that link
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Guide to Networking Essentials, Fifth Edition 4 From Parallel to Serial and Vice Versa NICs also manage transformations in network data’s form The computer bus has series of parallel data lines Parallel transmission For nearly all forms of networking media, signals traversing the media consist of a linear sequence of information that corresponds to a linear sequence of bits of data ( serial transmission ) To redistribute serial data to parallel lines (and vice versa), one of the most important components on a NIC is memory, which acts as a buffer
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Guide to Networking Essentials, Fifth Edition 5 From Parallel to Serial and Vice Versa (continued) Bus width
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Guide to Networking Essentials, Fifth Edition 6 From Parallel to Serial and Vice Versa (continued)
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Guide to Networking Essentials, Fifth Edition 7 Additional Functions of a NIC Creates, sends, and receives frames Frame: fundamental unit of data for network transmission and reception Deals with frame-level errors and incomplete or unintelligible frame structures Manages access to medium Acts as gatekeeper (permits inbound communications aimed only at its computer (or broadcast) to pass through NIC and on to CPU) Each card has a unique MAC address in ROM Promiscuous mode disables gatekeeper functions
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Guide to Networking Essentials, Fifth Edition 8 PC Buses When PCs were introduced, only a single bus
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