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Leacture CH7 - Guide to Networking Essentials Fifth Edition...

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Guide to Networking Essentials Fifth Edition Chapter 7 Network Architectures
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Guide to Networking Essentials, Fifth Edition 2 Objectives Compare and contrast media access methods used in network architectures Describe the operation of Ethernet Differentiate between Ethernet standards and speeds Explain the four Ethernet frame types and how they are used
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Guide to Networking Essentials, Fifth Edition 3 Objectives (continued) Describe the token ring architecture and its components Describe the AppleTalk network architecture Explain the function of Fiber Distributed Data Interface Describe other LAN and WAN architectures and their role in today’s networks
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Guide to Networking Essentials, Fifth Edition 4 Putting Data on the Cable: Access Methods Given that network architectures communicate in a number of different ways, some factors in network communications must be considered How computers put data on the cable How they ensure that the data reaches its destination undamaged
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Guide to Networking Essentials, Fifth Edition 5 Function of Access Methods The way in which computers attached to a network share the cable must be defined A collision results from two or more devices sending a signal along the same channel at the same time Splitting data in small chunks helps prevent collisions Channel access methods specify when computers can access the cable or data channel Ensure that data reaches destination by preventing computers from sending messages that might collide Every computer on a network must use the same access method
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Guide to Networking Essentials, Fifth Edition 6 Major Access Methods Channel access is handled at the MAC sublayer of the Data Link layer in the OSI model Five major types of channel access Contention Switching Token passing Demand priority Polling
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Guide to Networking Essentials, Fifth Edition 7 Contention In early networks based on contention , computers sent data whenever they had data to send As networks grow, outgoing messages collide more frequently, must be sent again, and then collide again To organize contention-based networks, two carrier access methods were created CSMA/CD CSMA/CA
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Guide to Networking Essentials, Fifth Edition 8 Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)
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Guide to Networking Essentials, Fifth Edition 9 Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) When the computer senses that no other computer is using the network, it signals its intent to transmit Other computers with data to send must wait when they receive the “intent-to-transmit” signal and send their “intent-to-transmit” only when channel is free The overhead created by intent-to-transmit packets reduces network speed significantly Used in wireless LANs with an access point Wireless NIC tells access point its intents to transmit Access point hears transmissions from all devices, so it can determine whether it’s okay to transmit
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