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339 Review Chapters 1-9

# 339 Review Chapters 1-9 - Learning Goals for Students of...

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Learning Goals for Students of Geography 339 1. To understand how real-life problems encountered in geography can be solved through the application of statistical methodology. 2. Gain statistical literacy and comfort in critically evaluating statistical information. 3. Establish competence in data summary, description and presentation: Be able to summarize information verbally. Be able to summarize information graphically. Be able to summarize information statistically. 4. Learn to apply a hypothetico-deductive approach to problem solving. 5. Identify the unique aspects of geographic problems, e.g., spatial arrangement, the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP).

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Learning Goals for Students of Geography 339 1. To understand how real-life problems encountered in geography can be solved through the application of statistical methodology. 2. Gain statistical literacy and comfort in critically evaluating statistical information. 3. Establish competence in data summary, description and presentation: Be able to summarize information verbally. Be able to summarize information graphically. Be able to summarize information statistically. 4. Learn to apply a hypothetico-deductive approach to problem solving. 5. Identify the unique aspects of geographic problems, e.g., spatial arrangement, the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP).
The HYPOTHETICO- DEDUCTIVE Approach Cont’d

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The HYPOTHETICO-DEDUCTIVE Approach: CONCEPTS HYPOTHESIS : A testable statement about the “link” (mechanism) between the process and the observations. Normally we implicate a particular process, and then make a statement about how that process will affect the phenomenon (data) under observation. THEORY : A body of knowledge which is used to pose hypotheses how does this relate to a “model”? OBSERVATION : The elements or phenomena under study for which information (data) is obtained or assigned. VARIABLE : A property or characteristic of each observation that can be measured. DATA VALUE : A particular instance of measurement of a variable of interest.
The HYPOTHETICO-DEDUCTIVE Approach: CONCEPTS II DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS : Statistics for providing “digested” summaries of variables why is this important?? INFERENTIAL STATISTICS : Statistics for testing hypotheses, or generalizing from samples to populations. Ok, there’s an important concept here: what’s a “sample” and what’s a “population”? SAMPLE : A clearly identified subset of observations, derived from a larger population consider a survey vs. a census... POPULATION : The entire group to which generalizations are made, and which the sample is a member of.

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Characteristics of Geographic Data: CONCEPTS PRIMARY DATA SOURCE : Data acquired directly from the source. The investigator has control over the data-gathering procedure.
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339 Review Chapters 1-9 - Learning Goals for Students of...

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