Chapter12 - Chapter 12: Inferential Spatial Statistics...

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Chapter 12: Inferential Spatial Statistics Introduction Spatial Pattern Distribution of a variable across a study area Can be point or area patterns Geographers describe and explain spatial pattern Information about the underlying process that created it Q. Is the pattern random or non-random? Dot maps or choropleth maps A. is found using inferential spatial statistics
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Chapter 12: Inferential Spatial Statistics Explaining spatial pattern helps us understand the processes which generate it.
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Chapter 12: Inferential Spatial Statistics Spatial Patterns 3 theoretical types: 1. Clustered 2. Dispersed 3. Random Real-world patterns: Combination of the above types Range from random to dispersed or clustered Point Patterns Area Patterns Clustered Dispersed Random “Spatial Arrangement”
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Chapter 12: Inferential Spatial Statistics Structure of Chapter 12 Point pattern tests (2): 1. Nearest Neighbour 2. Quadrat Frequency of points in a given area Area pattern test (1): 3. Joint Count Statistic Similar areas on a map that join
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Chapter 12: Inferential Spatial Statistics Point Pattern Analysis: Nearest Neighbour Analysis Purpose : to determine spatial arrangement of points within a study area. i.e., dispersed, random, or clustered? Synopsis : calculate the average spacing of points within a point pattern compare to an expected spacing (e.g., that from randomly distributed points).
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Chapter 12: Inferential Spatial Statistics Nearest Neighbour Analysis Step 1 : Calculate the average N earest N eighbour D istance n NND D N N n i i 1 Sum of all distances found from each point and its nearest neighbour on a map Number of points on the map
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Chapter 12: Inferential Spatial Statistics Nearest Neighbour Analysis Step 1 : Example. Find NND for each point and its NN, then find the overall average.
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Chapter12 - Chapter 12: Inferential Spatial Statistics...

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