D
= maximum CRF
o
–
CRF
e

if Z > 0 (i.e., above the mean), CNV = .50 + A
if Z = 0 (i.e., equal to mean), CNV = .50
if Z < 0 (i.e., below the mean), CNV = 1.00 – (.50 + A)
∑
∑
=
=
−
=
c
j
ij
ij
ij
r
i
E
E
O
1
2
1
2
)
(
χ
df
= (
R – 1)(C – 1)
N
C
R
E
j
i
ij
=
n
NND
D
N
N
n
i
i
∑
=
=
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
)
(
)
(
y
y
x
x
d
−
+
−
=
area
n
D
N
N
R
2
1
=
R
D
N
N
D
N
N
R
=
MEAN
VAR
VMR
=
1
)
(
1
2
−
−
=
∑
=
m
x
x
VAR
m
i
i
m
n
MEAN
=
[
]
Y
X
S
S
N
Y
Y
X
X
r
/
)
)(
(
∑
−
−
=
[
]
[
]
∑
∑
∑
∑
∑
∑
∑
−
−
−
=
)
/
)
((
)
/
)
((
)
/
)
)(
((
2
2
2
2
N
Y
Y
N
X
X
N
Y
X
XY
r
2
1
2
r
n
r
t
−
−
=
N
N
d
r
s
−
−
=
∑
3
2
)
(
6
1
1
−
=
n
r
Z
s
r
s
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