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Chapter 10 - Chapter 10 Photosynthesis Photoautotrophs Use...

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Chapter 10 Photosynthesis
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Photoautotrophs Use energy of sunlight to make organic molecules from water & CO 2 Figure 10.1
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Photosynthesis Occurs in plants, algae, certain other protists, & some prokaryotes These organisms use light energy to drive the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and (in most cases) water. They feed not only themselves, but the entire living world. (a) On land, plants are the predominant producers of food. In aquatic environments, photosynthetic organisms include (b) multicellular algae, such as this kelp; (c) some unicellular protists, such as Euglena; (d) the prokaryotes called cyanobacteria; and (e) other photosynthetic prokaryotes, such as these purple sulfur bacteria, which produce sulfur (spherical globules) (c, d, e: LMs). (a) Plants (b) Multicellular algae (c) Unicellular protist 10 μ m 40 μ m (d) Cyanobacteria 1.5 μ m (e) Pruple sulfur bacteria Figure 10.2
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Concept 10.1: Photosynthesis converts light energy to chemical energy of food
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Chloroplasts: Sites of Photosynthesis in Plants Leaves of plants Major sites of photosynthesis Vein Leaf cross section Figure 10.3 Mesophyll CO 2 O 2 Stomata
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Chloroplasts Organelles in which photosynthesis occurs Contain thylakoids and grana Chloroplast Mesophyll 5 µm Outer membrane Intermembrane space Inner membrane Thylakoid space Thylakoid Granum Stroma 1 µm
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Tracking Atoms Through Photosynthesis: Scientific Inquiry Photosynthesis is summarized as: 6 CO 2 + 12 H 2 O + Light energy C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 + 6 H 2 O
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The Splitting of Water Chloroplasts split water into Hydrogen & oxygen, incorporating electrons of hydrogen into sugar molecules 6 CO 2 12 H 2 O Reactants: Products: C 6 H 12 O 6 6 H 2 O 6 O 2 Figure 10.4
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Photosynthesis as a Redox Process Water is oxidized, CO 2 is reduced
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2 Stages of Photosynthesis: A Preview Photosynthesis consists of 2 processes 1. The light reactions 2. The Calvin cycle
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Light reactions Occur in the grana Split water, release O 2 , produce ATP, & form NADPH
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Calvin cycle Occurs in the stroma Forms sugar from CO 2 , using ATP for energy & NADPH for reducing power
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Overview of photosynthesis H 2 O CO 2 Light LIGHT REACTIONS CALVIN CYCLE Chloroplast [CH 2 O] (sugar) NADPH NADP + ADP + P O 2 Figure 10.5 ATP
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Concept 10.2: Light reactions convert solar energy to chemical energy of ATP & NADPH
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Electromagnetic spectrum Entire range of electromagnetic energy, or radiation Gamma rays X-rays UV Infrared Micro- waves Radio waves 10–5 nm 10–3 nm 1 nm 103 nm 106 nm 1 m 106 nm 103 m 380 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 nm Visible light Shorter wavelength Higher energy Longer wavelength Lower energy Figure 10.6
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Photosynthetic Pigments: The Light Receptors Pigments Substances that absorb visible light
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Reflect light, which include colors we see Light Reflected Light Chloroplast Absorbed light Granum Transmitted light Figure 10.7
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Spectrophotometer Machine that sends light through pigments & measures fraction of light transmitted at each wavelength
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Absorption spectrum Graph plotting light absorption vs. wavelength
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