Chapter 11 - Chapter 11 Cell Communication Concept 11.1...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 11 Cell Communication Concept 11.1: External signals are converted into responses within the cell Evolution of Cell Signaling Yeast cells Identify mates by cell signaling factor Receptor Exchange of mating factors. Each cell type secretes a mating factor that binds to receptors on the other cell type. 1 Mating. Binding of the factors to receptors induces changes in the cells that lead to their fusion. New a/ cell. The nucleus of the fused cell includes all the genes from the a and a cells. 2 3 factor Yeast cell, mating type a Yeast cell, mating type a/ a a Figure 11.2 Signal transduction pathways Convert signals on a cells surface into cellular responses Similar in microbes & mammals, suggesting an early origin Local and Long-Distance Signaling Cells in a multicellular organism Communicate via chemical messengers Animal & plant cells Have cell junctions that directly connect cytoplasm of adjacent cells Plasma membranes Plasmodesmata between plant cells Gap junctions between animal cells Figure 11.3 (a) Cell junctions. Both animals and plants have cell junctions that allow molecules to pass readily between adjacent cells without crossing plasma membranes. Figure 11.3 (b) Cell-cell recognition. Two cells in an animal may communicate by interaction between molecules protruding from their surfaces. In local signaling, animal cells May communicate via direct contact In other cases, animal cells Communicate using local regulators (a) Paracrine signaling . A secreting cell acts on nearby target cells by discharging molecules of a local regulator (a growth factor, for example) into the extracellular fluid. (b) Synaptic signaling . A nerve cell releases neurotransmitter molecules into a synapse, stimulating the target cell. Local regulator diffuses through extracellular fluid Target cell Secretory vesicle Electrical signal along nerve cell triggers release of neurotransmitter Neurotransmitter diffuses across synapse Target cell is stimulated Local signaling Figure 11.4 A B Long-distance (endocrine) signaling Both plants & animals use hormones Hormone travels in bloodstream to target cells (c) Hormonal signaling. Specialized endocrine cells secrete hormones into body fluids, often the blood. Hormones may reach virtually all body cells....
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Chapter 11 - Chapter 11 Cell Communication Concept 11.1...

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