Chapter 12 - Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle Overview: The Key...

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Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle
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Overview: The Key Roles of Cell Division Continuity of life Based upon reproduction of cells Figure 12.1
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Unicellular organisms Reproduce by cell division 100 µm (a) Reproduction. An amoeba, a single-celled eukaryote, is dividing into two cells. Each new cell will be an individual organism (LM). Figure 12.2 A
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Multicellular organisms depend on cell  division for Development from a fertilized cell Growth Repair 20 µm 200 µm (b) Growth and development. This micrograph shows a sand dollar embryo shortly after the fertilized egg divided, forming two cells (LM). (c) Tissue renewal. These dividing bone marrow cells (arrow) will give rise to new blood cells (LM). Figure 12.2 B, C
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Concept 12.1: Cell division  results in genetically  identical daughter cells Cells duplicate genetic mtl. Daughter cell receives exact  copy of genetic mtl.
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Cellular Organization of the Genetic Material A cell’s endowment of  DNA, its genetic  information Is called its genome
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The DNA molecules in a cell Are packaged into chromosomes 50 µm Figure 12.3
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Eukaryotic chromosomes Consist of chromatin protein that condenses during cell division In animals Somatic cells   2 sets of chromosomes Gametes   1 set of chromosomes
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Distribution of Chromosomes  During Cell Division In preparation for cell division condense
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Each duplicated chromosome Has 2 sister chromatids , which separate  during cell division 0.5 µm Chromosome duplication (including DNA synthesis) Centromere Separation of sister chromatids Sister chromatids Centromeres Sister chromatids A eukaryotic cell has multiple chromosomes, one of which is represented here. Before duplication, each chromosome has a single DNA molecule. Once duplicated, a chromosome consists of two sister chromatids connected at the centromere. Each chromatid contains a copy of the DNA molecule. Mechanical processes separate the sister chromatids into two chromosomes and distribute them to two daughter cells. Figure 12.4
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Eukaryotic cell  division consists  of Mitosis, division of  nucleus Cytokinesis,  division of  cytoplasm
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Concept 12.2:  The mitotic phase  alternates with  interphase in the  cell cycle The cell cycle  consists of The mitotic phase Interphase INTERPHASE G 1 S (DNA synthesis) G 2 Cytokinesis Mitosis MITOTIC (M) PHASE Figure 12.5
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Interphase – nondividing, 90% of cell cycle,  intense biochemical activity, subphases: G 1  phase - growth S phase – synthesis (chromosomes duplicated) G 2  phase - growth
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The mitotic phase Made up of mitosis & cytokinesis
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Mitosis consists of 5 distinct phases Prophase Prometaphase G 2 OF INTERPHASE PROPHASE PROMETAPHASE Centrosomes (with centriole pairs)
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Chapter 12 - Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle Overview: The Key...

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