Chapter 13 - Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles...

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Chapter 13 Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles
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Heredity Transmission of traits from one generation to next Variation Shows that offspring differ somewhat in appearance from parents & siblings
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Concept 13.1: Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes Genes Units of heredity (segments of DNA) Each gene in an organism’s DNA Has specific locus on a certain chromosome We inherit 1 set of chromosomes from mother & 1 set from father
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Comparison of Asexual and Sexual Reproduction Asexual reproduction One parent produces genetically identical offspring by mitosis Figure 13.2 Parent Bud 0.5 mm
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Sexual reproduction 2 parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from parents
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Concept 13.2: Fertilization and meiosis alternate in sexual life cycles A life cycle Generation-to-generation sequence of stages in reproductive history of an organism
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Sets of Chromosomes in Human Cells In humans Each somatic cell has 46 chromosomes, made up of 2 sets One set of chromosomes comes from each parent
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5 µ m Pair of homologous chromosomes Centromere Sister chromatids Figure 13.3 Karyotype – ordered, visual representation of chromosomes in a cell (screens for abnormal #, defective chromosomes)
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Homologous chromosomes 2 chromosomes composing a pair Have same characteristics Also be called autosomes
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Sex chromosomes Distinct from each other in characteristics Represented as X and Y Determine sex of individual, XX (female), XY (male)
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Diploid cell 2 sets of each of its chromosomes Human has 46 chromosomes (2 n = 46) Unlike somatic cells Gametes (sperm & egg) are haploid, containing 1 set of chromosomes
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Cell in which DNA synthesis has occurred Chromosomes are duplicated & thus each consists of 2 identical sister chromatids Figure 13.4 Key Maternal set of chromosomes ( n = 3) Paternal set of chromosomes ( n = 3) 2 n = 6
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This note was uploaded on 01/18/2011 for the course BIO 103 taught by Professor Sanders during the Spring '10 term at Northwestern IA.

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Chapter 13 - Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles...

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