L2_Instruction Set Architecture

L2_Instruction Set Architecture - EE504 Lecture 2...

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EE504 Lecture 2 EE504 Lecture 2 Instruction Set Architecture Instruction Set Architecture Dr. Yifong Shih Northwestern Polytechnic University Spring 2008   Structure” 1
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Read chapter 1 and appendix A and B.  Read Appendix  J for flavor. Y. Shih 2
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Outline 1. Definition and purpose of Instruction Set Brief history Evolution of instruction set architecture 2. Instruction set architecture design options Stacks, Accumulators and Registers Operands and Memory Access Addressing Modes Operations 3. Instruction Set Measurements and Compiler Technology Compiler technology and Instruction statistics Fixed vs variable length instruction encoding Modern compilers and architectural help to compiler writers 4. The big architecture debate of 80s/90s: RISC vs. CISC Y. Shih 3
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ISA Definition Instruction set architecture is: The attributes of a [ computing ] system as seen by the programmer, i.e., the conceptual structure and functional behavior, as distinct from organization of the data flows and controls the logic design, and the physical implementation. <Amdahl, Blaaw, Brooks, 1964 > Y. Shih 4
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Good ISA Properties Lasts through many generations of hardware  iterations, e.g. x86, PA-RISC, PPC May be used for different environments, e.g.  general OS, realtime OS, embedded, multimedia Provides useful functionality and separation to  higher levels, e.g. must have interrupts; small  but useful instruction set (good for compilers) Allows for easy lower level implementation, e.g.  at micro-architecture and logic design level Y. Shih 5
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ISA vs. Computer Architecture  (slide courtesy of Professor Patterson, UC Berkeley)   Old definition of computer architecture  = instruction set design  Other aspects of computer design called implementation   Insinuates implementation is uninteresting or less challenging Our view is computer architecture >> ISA Architect’s job much more than instruction set design; technical  hurdles today  more  challenging than those in instruction set  design Since instruction set design not where action is, some conclude  computer architecture (using old definition) is not where action is We disagree on conclusion Agree that ISA not where action is (ISA in CA:AQA 4/e  appendix) Y. Shih 6
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Computer Architecture  Definition  Changes 1950s to 1960s: Computer Arithmetic Hardware definition 1970s to late 1980s: Instruction Set Design, especially ISA appropriate for compilers 1990s to present: Design of CPU, memory system, I/O system,
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This note was uploaded on 01/19/2011 for the course EE EE504 taught by Professor Drlao during the Fall '10 term at College of the North Atlantic.

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L2_Instruction Set Architecture - EE504 Lecture 2...

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