L13_Directory Based Multiprocessors

L13_Directory Based Multiprocessors - EE504 Lecture 13...

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EE504 Lecture 13 Multiprocessing II: Directory Based Multiprocessors Dr. Yifong Shih Northwestern Polytechnic University Spring 2008 Based on Prof. David Patterson’s slides
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2 Review Caches contain all information on state of cached memory blocks Snooping cache over shared medium for smaller MP by invalidating other cached copies on write Sharing cached data Coherence (values returned by a read), Consistency (when a written value will be returned by a read)
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3 Outline Review Project presentation schedule Directory-based protocols and examples Synchronization Relaxed Consistency Models Fallacies and Pitfalls Cautionary Tale Conclusion
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4 A Cache Coherent System Must: Provide set of states, state transition diagram, and actions Manage coherence protocol (0) Determine when to invoke coherence protocol (a) Find info about state of block in other caches to determine action » whether need to communicate with other cached copies (b) Locate the other copies (c) Communicate with those copies (invalidate/update) (0) is done the same way on all systems state of the line is maintained in the cache protocol is invoked if an “access fault” occurs on the line Different approaches distinguished by (a) to (c)
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5 Bus-based Coherence All of (a), (b), (c) done through broadcast on bus faulting processor sends out a “search” others respond to the search probe and take necessary action Could do it in scalable network too broadcast to all processors, and let them respond Conceptually simple, but broadcast doesn’t scale with p on bus, bus bandwidth doesn’t scale on scalable network, every fault leads to at least p network transactions Scalable coherence: can have same cache states and state transition diagram different mechanisms to manage protocol
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6 Scalable Approach: Directories Every memory block has associated directory information keeps track of copies of cached blocks and their states on a miss, find directory entry, look it up, and communicate only with the nodes that have copies if necessary in scalable networks, communication with directory and copies is through network transactions Many alternatives for organizing directory information
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7 Basic Operation of Directory k processors. With each cache-block in memory: k presence-bits, 1 dirty-bit With each cache-block in cache: 1 valid bit, and 1 dirty (owner) bit P P Cache Cache Memory Directory presence bits dirty bit Interconnection Network • Read from main memory by processor i: • If dirty-bit OFF then { read from main memory; turn p[i] ON; } • if dirty-bit ON then { recall line from dirty proc (cache state to shared); update memory; turn dirty-bit OFF; turn p[i] ON; supply recalled data to i;} • Write to main memory by processor i: • If dirty-bit OFF then { supply data to i; send invalidations to all caches that have the block; turn dirty-bit ON; turn p[i] ON; . .. } • . ..
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8 Directory Protocol
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L13_Directory Based Multiprocessors - EE504 Lecture 13...

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