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anthrbio161studyquestionsforexam2 - Anthrbio 161 Study...

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Anthrbio 161 Study Questions for Midterm Exam 2 Jillian Rothman 1. What is the difference between unicellular and multi-cellular organisms in terms of reproduction and variability? Unicellular organisms reproduce asexually by dividing. Their only variability is due to mutation. Multicellular organisms reproduce through sexual reproduction. They have both genetic and phenotypic variability. 2. What is "stratigraphy”? What are the major eras of geological time over which vertebrates have evolved? Stratigraphy is a method of telling how old a fossil is. It indicates whether a specimen is older or younger than another because of the location of where the specimen is buried. The major eras of geological time are Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic. 3. What four factors made possible the success of mammals when compared to dinosaurs and reptiles? Four factors that make the success of mammals compared to dinosaurs successful are the complex central nervous system, hetero-dentition, the fact that they could adjust to different climates, and reproductive efficiency. 4. What is the major functional implication of heterodontism? Describe the dental formula used to identify the earliest ancestor of primates, prosimians, New world monkeys, Old world monkeys, hominoids, & hominids. Prosimians have 3 premolars so their dental formula is 2133. New world monkeys also have 2133 while old world monkeys have 2122. Hominoids have 2123. 5. How are genus & species defined? Discuss how the definition applies to both living & fossil groups. Genus is a group of species who are closely related to each other. Species are defined as populations that can reproduce fertile offspring. In fossil groups one cannot tell if the offspring would be fertile so traits that can be observed are the only means by which to compare them.
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