Chapters+1-4 - CONDENSED CHAPTER OUTLINES CHAPTER 1 -...

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Unformatted text preview: CONDENSED CHAPTER OUTLINES CHAPTER 1 - OUTLINE I. An overview of abnormal psychology A. Psychopathology (pathology of the mind): the symptoms and signs of mental disorders B. Abnormal psychology is defined as the application of psychological science to the study of mental disorders C. Mental disorders are defined by a set of features (symptoms) D. Terms : psychosis, delusion, insanity, nervous breakdown, syndrome II. Defining abnormal behavior A. Personal distress subjective experience of suffering; misses cases in which individual does not identify own thoughts/behaviors as problematic B. Statistical rarity statistically unusual behavior 1. How rare must it be (some disorders are quite common, e.g., depression)? 2. Does not consider whether behavior is harmful or adaptive (some unusual behaviors are advantageous) C. Maladaptiveness Wakefields harmful dysfunction concept 1. The condition causes harm to the person 2. The condition results from dysfunction of a mental capacity D. DSM-IV-TR defines mental disorders associated with: (any or all) 1. Present distress 2. Disability (impairment in one or more areas of functioning) 3. Significant risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom E. DSM-IV-TR defines pathologies in terms of our particular culture and cultural values III. Epidemiology A. The study of the frequency and distribution of disorders within a population B. Incidence number of new cases of a disorder that appear in a population during a specific period of time C. Prevalence total number of active cases that are present in a population during a specific period of time (lifetime prevalence-proportion of people in a given population affected by the disorder at some point during their lives) CONDENSED CHAPTER OUTLINES D. Gender differences are found in many but not all mental disorders; most prominent differences include: anxiety disorders and depression (more common in women), and substance abuse and antisocial personality disorder (more common in men). E. Comorbidity the presence of more than one condition at one time in an individual F. Global Burden of Disease and Injury assessed impact of conditions; mental disorders are responsible for 1% of death but 47% of disability in the U.S. and developed nations. VI. The scientific study of mental disorders A. Basis is the open-minded skepticism of the scientific method 1. Formulation of hypotheses 2. Collection and analysis of empirical data 3. Refinement of hypotheses based on findings B. Case studies can provide a wealth of information about a particular pathology and can help generate research questions and hypotheses, but are limited because they can be interpreted in many ways and may not be reliable or generalizable CONDENSED CHAPTER OUTLINES CHAPTER 2 OUTLINE 1. Systems A. Psychologists have argued for biological, psychodynamic, cognitive behavioral, and humanistic paradigms as best explaining normal and abnormal psychology B. The...
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Chapters+1-4 - CONDENSED CHAPTER OUTLINES CHAPTER 1 -...

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